This is the low volatility sub-strategy of the leveraged GLD-USD strategy.

'Total return, when measuring performance, is the actual rate of return of an investment or a pool of investments over a given evaluation period. Total return includes interest, capital gains, dividends and distributions realized over a given period of time. Total return accounts for two categories of return: income including interest paid by fixed-income investments, distributions or dividends and capital appreciation, representing the change in the market price of an asset.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The total return, or increase in value over 5 years of Gold-USD Low volatility Sub-strategy is 77.4%, which is higher, thus better compared to the benchmark GLD (45.6%) in the same period.
- Looking at total return, or performance in of 43.2% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to GLD (30.9%).

'Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period. CAGR is not an accounting term, but it is often used to describe some element of the business, for example revenue, units delivered, registered users, etc. CAGR dampens the effect of volatility of periodic returns that can render arithmetic means irrelevant. It is particularly useful to compare growth rates from various data sets of common domain such as revenue growth of companies in the same industry.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the annual performance (CAGR) of 12.2% in the last 5 years of Gold-USD Low volatility Sub-strategy, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to the benchmark GLD (7.8%)
- Looking at annual performance (CAGR) in of 12.7% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to GLD (9.4%).

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark GLD (14.6%) in the period of the last 5 years, the 30 days standard deviation of 8% of Gold-USD Low volatility Sub-strategy is smaller, thus better.
- During the last 3 years, the historical 30 days volatility is 8.5%, which is lower, thus better than the value of 16% from the benchmark.

'Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The downside deviation over 5 years of Gold-USD Low volatility Sub-strategy is 5.3%, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark GLD (10.3%) in the same period.
- Looking at downside risk in of 5.6% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to GLD (11.3%).

'The Sharpe ratio was developed by Nobel laureate William F. Sharpe, and is used to help investors understand the return of an investment compared to its risk. The ratio is the average return earned in excess of the risk-free rate per unit of volatility or total risk. Subtracting the risk-free rate from the mean return allows an investor to better isolate the profits associated with risk-taking activities. One intuition of this calculation is that a portfolio engaging in 'zero risk' investments, such as the purchase of U.S. Treasury bills (for which the expected return is the risk-free rate), has a Sharpe ratio of exactly zero. Generally, the greater the value of the Sharpe ratio, the more attractive the risk-adjusted return.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the risk / return profile (Sharpe) of 1.21 in the last 5 years of Gold-USD Low volatility Sub-strategy, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to the benchmark GLD (0.36)
- During the last 3 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) is 1.2, which is greater, thus better than the value of 0.43 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the excess return divided by the downside deviation of 1.84 in the last 5 years of Gold-USD Low volatility Sub-strategy, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to the benchmark GLD (0.51)
- Compared with GLD (0.61) in the period of the last 3 years, the excess return divided by the downside deviation of 1.82 is higher, thus better.

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The Downside risk index over 5 years of Gold-USD Low volatility Sub-strategy is 2.62 , which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark GLD (10 ) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the Ulcer Index is 3.05 , which is lower, thus better than the value of 12 from the benchmark.

'Maximum drawdown is defined as the peak-to-trough decline of an investment during a specific period. It is usually quoted as a percentage of the peak value. The maximum drawdown can be calculated based on absolute returns, in order to identify strategies that suffer less during market downturns, such as low-volatility strategies. However, the maximum drawdown can also be calculated based on returns relative to a benchmark index, for identifying strategies that show steady outperformance over time.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the maximum drop from peak to valley of -8.3 days in the last 5 years of Gold-USD Low volatility Sub-strategy, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to the benchmark GLD (-22 days)
- Looking at maximum drop from peak to valley in of -7.5 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to GLD (-22 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the maximum days under water of 170 days in the last 5 years of Gold-USD Low volatility Sub-strategy, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to the benchmark GLD (660 days)
- During the last 3 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark is 170 days, which is smaller, thus better than the value of 660 days from the benchmark.

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the average days below previous high of 39 days in the last 5 years of Gold-USD Low volatility Sub-strategy, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark GLD (227 days)
- Compared with GLD (302 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average days under water of 53 days is smaller, thus better.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of Gold-USD Low volatility Sub-strategy are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.