This is the low volatility sub-strategy of the leveraged GLD-USD strategy.

'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the total return of 72.3% in the last 5 years of Gold-USD Low volatility Sub-strategy, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to the benchmark GLD (40.5%)
- During the last 3 years, the total return, or increase in value is 46.9%, which is greater, thus better than the value of 21% from the benchmark.

'Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period. CAGR is not an accounting term, but it is often used to describe some element of the business, for example revenue, units delivered, registered users, etc. CAGR dampens the effect of volatility of periodic returns that can render arithmetic means irrelevant. It is particularly useful to compare growth rates from various data sets of common domain such as revenue growth of companies in the same industry.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark GLD (7%) in the period of the last 5 years, the annual performance (CAGR) of 11.5% of Gold-USD Low volatility Sub-strategy is greater, thus better.
- During the last 3 years, the annual performance (CAGR) is 13.7%, which is greater, thus better than the value of 6.5% from the benchmark.

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The 30 days standard deviation over 5 years of Gold-USD Low volatility Sub-strategy is 7.9%, which is smaller, thus better compared to the benchmark GLD (14.3%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the volatility is 9%, which is smaller, thus better than the value of 16.2% from the benchmark.

'Downside risk is the financial risk associated with losses. That is, it is the risk of the actual return being below the expected return, or the uncertainty about the magnitude of that difference. Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark GLD (10.2%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside volatility of 5.2% of Gold-USD Low volatility Sub-strategy is lower, thus better.
- Compared with GLD (11.7%) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside volatility of 6% is smaller, thus better.

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of 1.15 in the last 5 years of Gold-USD Low volatility Sub-strategy, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to the benchmark GLD (0.32)
- During the last 3 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) is 1.24, which is larger, thus better than the value of 0.25 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio measures the risk-adjusted return of an investment asset, portfolio, or strategy. It is a modification of the Sharpe ratio but penalizes only those returns falling below a user-specified target or required rate of return, while the Sharpe ratio penalizes both upside and downside volatility equally. Though both ratios measure an investment's risk-adjusted return, they do so in significantly different ways that will frequently lead to differing conclusions as to the true nature of the investment's return-generating efficiency. The Sortino ratio is used as a way to compare the risk-adjusted performance of programs with differing risk and return profiles. In general, risk-adjusted returns seek to normalize the risk across programs and then see which has the higher return unit per risk.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark GLD (0.45) in the period of the last 5 years, the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of 1.73 of Gold-USD Low volatility Sub-strategy is larger, thus better.
- Looking at ratio of annual return and downside deviation in of 1.87 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to GLD (0.35).

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the Ulcer Index of 2.65 in the last 5 years of Gold-USD Low volatility Sub-strategy, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to the benchmark GLD (9.81 )
- Compared with GLD (12 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Ulcer Index of 3.17 is smaller, thus better.

'Maximum drawdown is defined as the peak-to-trough decline of an investment during a specific period. It is usually quoted as a percentage of the peak value. The maximum drawdown can be calculated based on absolute returns, in order to identify strategies that suffer less during market downturns, such as low-volatility strategies. However, the maximum drawdown can also be calculated based on returns relative to a benchmark index, for identifying strategies that show steady outperformance over time.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The maximum reduction from previous high over 5 years of Gold-USD Low volatility Sub-strategy is -8.3 days, which is greater, thus better compared to the benchmark GLD (-22 days) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum DrawDown is -8.3 days, which is larger, thus better than the value of -22 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark GLD (590 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum days below previous high of 162 days of Gold-USD Low volatility Sub-strategy is lower, thus better.
- Looking at maximum days below previous high in of 162 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to GLD (590 days).

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The average days below previous high over 5 years of Gold-USD Low volatility Sub-strategy is 39 days, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark GLD (204 days) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the average days under water is 49 days, which is lower, thus better than the value of 250 days from the benchmark.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
[Show Details]

Allocations and holdings shown below are delayed by one month.

Register now to get the current trading allocations.

- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of Gold-USD Low volatility Sub-strategy are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.