This is the aggressive sub-strategy of the leveraged GLD-USD strategy.

'Total return, when measuring performance, is the actual rate of return of an investment or a pool of investments over a given evaluation period. Total return includes interest, capital gains, dividends and distributions realized over a given period of time. Total return accounts for two categories of return: income including interest paid by fixed-income investments, distributions or dividends and capital appreciation, representing the change in the market price of an asset.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark GLD (51.9%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return, or performance of 49.8% of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy is smaller, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the total return, or increase in value is 3.6%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 46% from the benchmark.

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) over 5 years of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy is 8.4%, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark GLD (8.7%) in the same period.
- Compared with GLD (13.5%) in the period of the last 3 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 1.2% is lower, thus worse.

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the 30 days standard deviation of 13.6% in the last 5 years of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark GLD (13.4%)
- During the last 3 years, the 30 days standard deviation is 12.6%, which is smaller, thus better than the value of 12.8% from the benchmark.

'Downside risk is the financial risk associated with losses. That is, it is the risk of the actual return being below the expected return, or the uncertainty about the magnitude of that difference. Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark GLD (9%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside deviation of 9.2% of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy is greater, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the downside deviation is 9%, which is higher, thus worse than the value of 8.6% from the benchmark.

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) over 5 years of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy is 0.44, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark GLD (0.46) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) is -0.1, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 0.86 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark GLD (0.69) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside risk / excess return profile of 0.64 of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy is lower, thus worse.
- Compared with GLD (1.27) in the period of the last 3 years, the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of -0.15 is lower, thus worse.

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the Ulcer Ratio of 7.37 in the last 5 years of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark GLD (7 )
- During the last 3 years, the Ulcer Ratio is 9.19 , which is higher, thus worse than the value of 5.55 from the benchmark.

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the maximum reduction from previous high of -18.9 days in the last 5 years of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark GLD (-17.8 days)
- During the last 3 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley is -18.9 days, which is lower, thus worse than the value of -13.8 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 534 days in the last 5 years of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark GLD (741 days)
- Compared with GLD (352 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum days below previous high of 534 days is larger, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the average days under water of 134 days in the last 5 years of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark GLD (239 days)
- Looking at average days below previous high in of 206 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to GLD (103 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.