This is the aggressive sub-strategy of the leveraged GLD-USD strategy.

'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark GLD (68.8%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return, or performance of 93.6% of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy is higher, thus better.
- During the last 3 years, the total return, or increase in value is 34.4%, which is larger, thus better than the value of 34.1% from the benchmark.

'Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period. CAGR is not an accounting term, but it is often used to describe some element of the business, for example revenue, units delivered, registered users, etc. CAGR dampens the effect of volatility of periodic returns that can render arithmetic means irrelevant. It is particularly useful to compare growth rates from various data sets of common domain such as revenue growth of companies in the same industry.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 14.2% in the last 5 years of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to the benchmark GLD (11.1%)
- Looking at compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) in of 10.4% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to GLD (10.3%).

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark GLD (15.3%) in the period of the last 5 years, the 30 days standard deviation of 18.1% of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy is greater, thus worse.
- Compared with GLD (14.1%) in the period of the last 3 years, the historical 30 days volatility of 18.3% is greater, thus worse.

'Downside risk is the financial risk associated with losses. That is, it is the risk of the actual return being below the expected return, or the uncertainty about the magnitude of that difference. Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark GLD (10.7%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside volatility of 12.9% of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy is higher, thus worse.
- Looking at downside risk in of 13.5% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to GLD (9.6%).

'The Sharpe ratio was developed by Nobel laureate William F. Sharpe, and is used to help investors understand the return of an investment compared to its risk. The ratio is the average return earned in excess of the risk-free rate per unit of volatility or total risk. Subtracting the risk-free rate from the mean return allows an investor to better isolate the profits associated with risk-taking activities. One intuition of this calculation is that a portfolio engaging in 'zero risk' investments, such as the purchase of U.S. Treasury bills (for which the expected return is the risk-free rate), has a Sharpe ratio of exactly zero. Generally, the greater the value of the Sharpe ratio, the more attractive the risk-adjusted return.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the risk / return profile (Sharpe) of 0.64 in the last 5 years of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to the benchmark GLD (0.56)
- During the last 3 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) is 0.43, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 0.55 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark GLD (0.8) in the period of the last 5 years, the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of 0.91 of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy is greater, thus better.
- Looking at excess return divided by the downside deviation in of 0.58 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to GLD (0.81).

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the Downside risk index of 15 in the last 5 years of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark GLD (9.79 )
- Compared with GLD (8.27 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Ulcer Index of 17 is higher, thus worse.

'Maximum drawdown is defined as the peak-to-trough decline of an investment during a specific period. It is usually quoted as a percentage of the peak value. The maximum drawdown can be calculated based on absolute returns, in order to identify strategies that suffer less during market downturns, such as low-volatility strategies. However, the maximum drawdown can also be calculated based on returns relative to a benchmark index, for identifying strategies that show steady outperformance over time.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the maximum drop from peak to valley of -34.4 days in the last 5 years of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark GLD (-22 days)
- Looking at maximum DrawDown in of -34.4 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to GLD (-21 days).

'The Maximum Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. It is the length of time the account was in the Max Drawdown. A Max Drawdown measures a retrenchment from when an equity curve reaches a new high. It’s the maximum an account lost during that retrenchment. This method is applied because a valley can’t be measured until a new high occurs. Once the new high is reached, the percentage change from the old high to the bottom of the largest trough is recorded.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The maximum days under water over 5 years of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy is 435 days, which is smaller, thus better compared to the benchmark GLD (897 days) in the same period.
- Compared with GLD (436 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum days under water of 435 days is lower, thus better.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark GLD (346 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the average days below previous high of 155 days of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy is lower, thus better.
- Compared with GLD (143 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average days under water of 142 days is lower, thus better.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy are hypothetical and do not account for slippage, fees or taxes.
- Results may be based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.