The Leveraged Gold-Currency Strategy takes advantage of the historically negative correlation between gold and the U.S. dollar. It switches between the two assets based on their recent risk adjusted performance enabling the strategy to provide protection against severe gold corrections due to dollar strength. It is an excellent addition to existing equity or bond portfolios as it holds very little correlation to either.

This version of the strategy uses inverse leveraged ETFs to generate higher returns, but some retirement accounts are restricted from trading these ETFs. GLD-UUP provides an alternate form of the strategy without leveraged ETFs which also lowers the overall return and volatility.

'Total return, when measuring performance, is the actual rate of return of an investment or a pool of investments over a given evaluation period. Total return includes interest, capital gains, dividends and distributions realized over a given period of time. Total return accounts for two categories of return: income including interest paid by fixed-income investments, distributions or dividends and capital appreciation, representing the change in the market price of an asset.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark GLD (31.7%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return of 29% of Leveraged Gold-Currency Strategy is lower, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the total return is 16.2%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 46.4% from the benchmark.

'The compound annual growth rate isn't a true return rate, but rather a representational figure. It is essentially a number that describes the rate at which an investment would have grown if it had grown the same rate every year and the profits were reinvested at the end of each year. In reality, this sort of performance is unlikely. However, CAGR can be used to smooth returns so that they may be more easily understood when compared to alternative investments.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark GLD (5.7%) in the period of the last 5 years, the annual performance (CAGR) of 5.2% of Leveraged Gold-Currency Strategy is smaller, thus worse.
- Compared with GLD (13.6%) in the period of the last 3 years, the annual performance (CAGR) of 5.1% is smaller, thus worse.

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the historical 30 days volatility of 8.7% in the last 5 years of Leveraged Gold-Currency Strategy, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark GLD (13.4%)
- During the last 3 years, the 30 days standard deviation is 9.4%, which is lower, thus better than the value of 15% from the benchmark.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark GLD (9.6%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside deviation of 6.2% of Leveraged Gold-Currency Strategy is lower, thus better.
- Compared with GLD (10.7%) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside deviation of 6.8% is smaller, thus better.

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark GLD (0.24) in the period of the last 5 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) of 0.31 of Leveraged Gold-Currency Strategy is larger, thus better.
- Looking at ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) in of 0.28 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to GLD (0.74).

'The Sortino ratio measures the risk-adjusted return of an investment asset, portfolio, or strategy. It is a modification of the Sharpe ratio but penalizes only those returns falling below a user-specified target or required rate of return, while the Sharpe ratio penalizes both upside and downside volatility equally. Though both ratios measure an investment's risk-adjusted return, they do so in significantly different ways that will frequently lead to differing conclusions as to the true nature of the investment's return-generating efficiency. The Sortino ratio is used as a way to compare the risk-adjusted performance of programs with differing risk and return profiles. In general, risk-adjusted returns seek to normalize the risk across programs and then see which has the higher return unit per risk.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark GLD (0.33) in the period of the last 5 years, the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of 0.44 of Leveraged Gold-Currency Strategy is larger, thus better.
- During the last 3 years, the downside risk / excess return profile is 0.39, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 1.04 from the benchmark.

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The Ulcer Index over 5 years of Leveraged Gold-Currency Strategy is 3.59 , which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark GLD (8.22 ) in the same period.
- Looking at Downside risk index in of 3.54 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to GLD (6.95 ).

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the maximum reduction from previous high of -9.7 days in the last 5 years of Leveraged Gold-Currency Strategy, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to the benchmark GLD (-18.8 days)
- Compared with GLD (-18.8 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum reduction from previous high of -9.7 days is higher, thus better.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark GLD (724 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 181 days of Leveraged Gold-Currency Strategy is lower, thus better.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum days below previous high is 162 days, which is lower, thus better than the value of 247 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The average time in days below previous high water mark over 5 years of Leveraged Gold-Currency Strategy is 49 days, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark GLD (249 days) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the average days below previous high is 45 days, which is lower, thus better than the value of 61 days from the benchmark.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of Leveraged Gold-Currency Strategy are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.