The BUG strategy is one of our more conservative strategies. The strategy does not attempt to predict prices or the future state of the economy. It holds a broad diversified number of assets that complement each other, each performing well in a different economic environment such as inflation, deflation, growth and stagnation. It is meant for long term, steady growth and low risk.

It inherits part of its logic from Harry Browne's tried-and-true Permanent Portfolio and the publicized workings of the All-Weather portfolio.

- US Market (SPY: S&P 500 SPDRs)
- Long Duration Treasuries (TLT: iShares 20+ Year Treasury Bond)
- Gold (GLD: Gold Shares SPDR)
- Cash or equivalent (SHY: 1-3 Year Treasury Bonds)

- Convertible Bonds (CWB: SPDR Barclays Convertible Securities)
- Inflation Protected Treasuries (TIP: iShares TIPS Bond Fund)
- Foreign Bonds (PCY: PowerShares Emerging Markets Sovereign Bond)

'Total return, when measuring performance, is the actual rate of return of an investment or a pool of investments over a given evaluation period. Total return includes interest, capital gains, dividends and distributions realized over a given period of time. Total return accounts for two categories of return: income including interest paid by fixed-income investments, distributions or dividends and capital appreciation, representing the change in the market price of an asset.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark AGG (17.3%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return of 38.8% of BUG Permanent Portfolio Strategy is higher, thus better.
- During the last 3 years, the total return, or increase in value is 22.2%, which is greater, thus better than the value of 9.2% from the benchmark.

'The compound annual growth rate isn't a true return rate, but rather a representational figure. It is essentially a number that describes the rate at which an investment would have grown if it had grown the same rate every year and the profits were reinvested at the end of each year. In reality, this sort of performance is unlikely. However, CAGR can be used to smooth returns so that they may be more easily understood when compared to alternative investments.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the annual performance (CAGR) of 6.8% in the last 5 years of BUG Permanent Portfolio Strategy, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to the benchmark AGG (3.3%)
- Compared with AGG (3%) in the period of the last 3 years, the annual performance (CAGR) of 6.9% is greater, thus better.

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the 30 days standard deviation of 5.9% in the last 5 years of BUG Permanent Portfolio Strategy, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark AGG (3.1%)
- Looking at 30 days standard deviation in of 5.5% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to AGG (2.8%).

'Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The downside deviation over 5 years of BUG Permanent Portfolio Strategy is 6.6%, which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark AGG (3.3%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the downside deviation is 6.3%, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 3% from the benchmark.

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The Sharpe Ratio over 5 years of BUG Permanent Portfolio Strategy is 0.72, which is higher, thus better compared to the benchmark AGG (0.24) in the same period.
- Looking at ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) in of 0.81 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to AGG (0.17).

'The Sortino ratio measures the risk-adjusted return of an investment asset, portfolio, or strategy. It is a modification of the Sharpe ratio but penalizes only those returns falling below a user-specified target or required rate of return, while the Sharpe ratio penalizes both upside and downside volatility equally. Though both ratios measure an investment's risk-adjusted return, they do so in significantly different ways that will frequently lead to differing conclusions as to the true nature of the investment's return-generating efficiency. The Sortino ratio is used as a way to compare the risk-adjusted performance of programs with differing risk and return profiles. In general, risk-adjusted returns seek to normalize the risk across programs and then see which has the higher return unit per risk.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark AGG (0.23) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside risk / excess return profile of 0.65 of BUG Permanent Portfolio Strategy is higher, thus better.
- Compared with AGG (0.16) in the period of the last 3 years, the excess return divided by the downside deviation of 0.71 is higher, thus better.

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the Ulcer Index of 2.82 in the last 5 years of BUG Permanent Portfolio Strategy, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark AGG (1.63 )
- Looking at Ulcer Index in of 2.76 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to AGG (1.83 ).

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the maximum drop from peak to valley of -7.6 days in the last 5 years of BUG Permanent Portfolio Strategy, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark AGG (-4.5 days)
- Compared with AGG (-4.3 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum reduction from previous high of -7.1 days is lower, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark AGG (331 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 288 days of BUG Permanent Portfolio Strategy is smaller, thus better.
- Compared with AGG (331 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum days under water of 288 days is lower, thus better.

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The average days below previous high over 5 years of BUG Permanent Portfolio Strategy is 81 days, which is smaller, thus better compared to the benchmark AGG (114 days) in the same period.
- Looking at average days under water in of 74 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to AGG (122 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- "Year" returns in the table above are not equal to the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of BUG Permanent Portfolio Strategy are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.