This is an alternative, 2 times leveraged version of the US Market Strategy using:

- DDM ProShares Ultra Dow30
- QLD ProShares Ultra
- SSO ProShares Ultra S&P500

See more about the US Market Strategy.

'Total return is the amount of value an investor earns from a security over a specific period, typically one year, when all distributions are reinvested. Total return is expressed as a percentage of the amount invested. For example, a total return of 20% means the security increased by 20% of its original value due to a price increase, distribution of dividends (if a stock), coupons (if a bond) or capital gains (if a fund). Total return is a strong measure of an investment’s overall performance.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (95%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return, or performance of 334.8% of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage is greater, thus better.
- Looking at total return, or increase in value in of 166.2% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to SPY (40.5%).

'The compound annual growth rate isn't a true return rate, but rather a representational figure. It is essentially a number that describes the rate at which an investment would have grown if it had grown the same rate every year and the profits were reinvested at the end of each year. In reality, this sort of performance is unlikely. However, CAGR can be used to smooth returns so that they may be more easily understood when compared to alternative investments.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 34.2% in the last 5 years of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (14.3%)
- Looking at annual performance (CAGR) in of 38.7% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to SPY (12%).

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The 30 days standard deviation over 5 years of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage is 18.8%, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (18.8%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the volatility is 21.1%, which is lower, thus better than the value of 22.4% from the benchmark.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (13.7%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside risk of 13.1% of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage is smaller, thus better.
- Looking at downside volatility in of 14.8% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to SPY (16.5%).

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the Sharpe Ratio of 1.69 in the last 5 years of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.63)
- Looking at risk / return profile (Sharpe) in of 1.71 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to SPY (0.43).

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of 2.41 in the last 5 years of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.86)
- Looking at downside risk / excess return profile in of 2.44 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to SPY (0.58).

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The Downside risk index over 5 years of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage is 5.46 , which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (5.79 ) in the same period.
- Looking at Ulcer Ratio in of 5.48 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to SPY (7.09 ).

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum reduction from previous high of -25.8 days of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage is larger, thus better.
- Compared with SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum reduction from previous high of -25.8 days is higher, thus better.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs). Many assume Max DD Duration is the length of time between new highs during which the Max DD (magnitude) occurred. But that isn’t always the case. The Max DD duration is the longest time between peaks, period. So it could be the time when the program also had its biggest peak to valley loss (and usually is, because the program needs a long time to recover from the largest loss), but it doesn’t have to be'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 264 days in the last 5 years of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (139 days)
- During the last 3 years, the maximum days under water is 264 days, which is greater, thus worse than the value of 139 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The average days under water over 5 years of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage is 53 days, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (37 days) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the average days under water is 64 days, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 45 days from the benchmark.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.