This is an alternative, 2 times leveraged version of the US Market Strategy using:

- DDM ProShares Ultra Dow30
- QLD ProShares Ultra
- SSO ProShares Ultra S&P500

See more about the US Market Strategy.

'Total return, when measuring performance, is the actual rate of return of an investment or a pool of investments over a given evaluation period. Total return includes interest, capital gains, dividends and distributions realized over a given period of time. Total return accounts for two categories of return: income including interest paid by fixed-income investments, distributions or dividends and capital appreciation, representing the change in the market price of an asset.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the total return, or performance of 175.6% in the last 5 years of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (62.6%)
- During the last 3 years, the total return, or increase in value is 92.9%, which is higher, thus better than the value of 32.1% from the benchmark.

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The annual return (CAGR) over 5 years of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage is 22.5%, which is higher, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (10.2%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) is 24.4%, which is greater, thus better than the value of 9.7% from the benchmark.

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the 30 days standard deviation of 20.1% in the last 5 years of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (21.5%)
- Compared with SPY (24.8%) in the period of the last 3 years, the historical 30 days volatility of 22.6% is lower, thus better.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the downside risk of 14.4% in the last 5 years of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (15.6%)
- Compared with SPY (17.9%) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside deviation of 16% is lower, thus better.

'The Sharpe ratio was developed by Nobel laureate William F. Sharpe, and is used to help investors understand the return of an investment compared to its risk. The ratio is the average return earned in excess of the risk-free rate per unit of volatility or total risk. Subtracting the risk-free rate from the mean return allows an investor to better isolate the profits associated with risk-taking activities. One intuition of this calculation is that a portfolio engaging in 'zero risk' investments, such as the purchase of U.S. Treasury bills (for which the expected return is the risk-free rate), has a Sharpe ratio of exactly zero. Generally, the greater the value of the Sharpe ratio, the more attractive the risk-adjusted return.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The Sharpe Ratio over 5 years of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage is 0.99, which is higher, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (0.36) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) is 0.97, which is higher, thus better than the value of 0.29 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio measures the risk-adjusted return of an investment asset, portfolio, or strategy. It is a modification of the Sharpe ratio but penalizes only those returns falling below a user-specified target or required rate of return, while the Sharpe ratio penalizes both upside and downside volatility equally. Though both ratios measure an investment's risk-adjusted return, they do so in significantly different ways that will frequently lead to differing conclusions as to the true nature of the investment's return-generating efficiency. The Sortino ratio is used as a way to compare the risk-adjusted performance of programs with differing risk and return profiles. In general, risk-adjusted returns seek to normalize the risk across programs and then see which has the higher return unit per risk.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The downside risk / excess return profile over 5 years of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage is 1.39, which is greater, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (0.5) in the same period.
- Looking at excess return divided by the downside deviation in of 1.37 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to SPY (0.4).

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (8.52 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Ulcer Index of 8.4 of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage is lower, thus better.
- During the last 3 years, the Downside risk index is 9.65 , which is smaller, thus better than the value of 10 from the benchmark.

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley of -27.8 days of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage is larger, thus better.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum reduction from previous high is -27.8 days, which is larger, thus better than the value of -33.7 days from the benchmark.

'The Maximum Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. It is the length of time the account was in the Max Drawdown. A Max Drawdown measures a retrenchment from when an equity curve reaches a new high. It’s the maximum an account lost during that retrenchment. This method is applied because a valley can’t be measured until a new high occurs. Once the new high is reached, the percentage change from the old high to the bottom of the largest trough is recorded.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (235 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum days below previous high of 292 days of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage is higher, thus worse.
- Looking at maximum time in days below previous high water mark in of 264 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (235 days).

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the average days below previous high of 84 days in the last 5 years of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (55 days)
- Looking at average days under water in of 73 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (59 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.