This is the unhedged substrategy for the 2x leveraged US Market strategy

'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the total return of 502.1% in the last 5 years of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage Unhedged, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (106.8%)
- Compared with SPY (71.9%) in the period of the last 3 years, the total return of 214.3% is greater, thus better.

'Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period. CAGR is not an accounting term, but it is often used to describe some element of the business, for example revenue, units delivered, registered users, etc. CAGR dampens the effect of volatility of periodic returns that can render arithmetic means irrelevant. It is particularly useful to compare growth rates from various data sets of common domain such as revenue growth of companies in the same industry.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (15.7%) in the period of the last 5 years, the annual performance (CAGR) of 43.2% of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage Unhedged is greater, thus better.
- Compared with SPY (19.8%) in the period of the last 3 years, the annual return (CAGR) of 46.5% is greater, thus better.

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (18.9%) in the period of the last 5 years, the 30 days standard deviation of 42.5% of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage Unhedged is greater, thus worse.
- Looking at volatility in of 48.6% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (21.9%).

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The downside deviation over 5 years of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage Unhedged is 30.6%, which is higher, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (13.8%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the downside volatility is 34.8%, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 15.9% from the benchmark.

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The risk / return profile (Sharpe) over 5 years of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage Unhedged is 0.96, which is larger, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (0.69) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) is 0.9, which is greater, thus better than the value of 0.79 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio measures the risk-adjusted return of an investment asset, portfolio, or strategy. It is a modification of the Sharpe ratio but penalizes only those returns falling below a user-specified target or required rate of return, while the Sharpe ratio penalizes both upside and downside volatility equally. Though both ratios measure an investment's risk-adjusted return, they do so in significantly different ways that will frequently lead to differing conclusions as to the true nature of the investment's return-generating efficiency. The Sortino ratio is used as a way to compare the risk-adjusted performance of programs with differing risk and return profiles. In general, risk-adjusted returns seek to normalize the risk across programs and then see which has the higher return unit per risk.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.95) in the period of the last 5 years, the excess return divided by the downside deviation of 1.33 of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage Unhedged is higher, thus better.
- During the last 3 years, the downside risk / excess return profile is 1.26, which is larger, thus better than the value of 1.09 from the benchmark.

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (5.61 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Ulcer Index of 11 of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage Unhedged is higher, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the Ulcer Index is 12 , which is larger, thus worse than the value of 6.08 from the benchmark.

'Maximum drawdown is defined as the peak-to-trough decline of an investment during a specific period. It is usually quoted as a percentage of the peak value. The maximum drawdown can be calculated based on absolute returns, in order to identify strategies that suffer less during market downturns, such as low-volatility strategies. However, the maximum drawdown can also be calculated based on returns relative to a benchmark index, for identifying strategies that show steady outperformance over time.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the maximum reduction from previous high of -51.7 days in the last 5 years of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage Unhedged, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days)
- During the last 3 years, the maximum DrawDown is -51.7 days, which is lower, thus worse than the value of -33.7 days from the benchmark.

'The Maximum Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. It is the length of time the account was in the Max Drawdown. A Max Drawdown measures a retrenchment from when an equity curve reaches a new high. It’s the maximum an account lost during that retrenchment. This method is applied because a valley can’t be measured until a new high occurs. Once the new high is reached, the percentage change from the old high to the bottom of the largest trough is recorded.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The maximum days below previous high over 5 years of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage Unhedged is 114 days, which is smaller, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (139 days) in the same period.
- Looking at maximum days under water in of 97 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to SPY (119 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The average time in days below previous high water mark over 5 years of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage Unhedged is 28 days, which is smaller, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (32 days) in the same period.
- Looking at average days below previous high in of 30 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (22 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage Unhedged are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.