The World Country South America strategy is a sub-strategy that picks the top country of the specified region. It is part of the World Top 4 investment strategy.

ARGTÂ Global X MSCI Argentina ETF

ECH iShares MSCI Chile Fund

EPU iShares MSCI Peru Index

EWW iShares MSCI Mexico Index Fund

EWZ iShares MSCI Brazil Index Fund

GXGÂ Global X MSCI Colombia ETF

From the HEDGE strategy:

GLDÂ â€“Â SPDR Gold Shares

TLTâ€“Â iShares Barclays Long-Term Treasuries (15-18yr)

Short Sectors:

SMN - ProShares UltraShort Basic Materials

ERY - Direxion Daily Energy Bear 3X ETF

SKF - ProShares UltraShort Financials

SIJ - ProShares UltraShort Industrial

REW - ProShares UltraShort Technology

RXD - ProShares UltraShort Health Car

SCC - ProShares UltraShort Consumer Service

SDP - ProShares UltraShort Utilities

SZK - ProShares UltraShort Consumer Goods

'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (60.6%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return, or performance of 99.2% of World Countries South America is larger, thus better.
- Looking at total return, or performance in of 96.7% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to SPY (38%).

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the annual performance (CAGR) of 14.8% in the last 5 years of World Countries South America, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (10%)
- Looking at annual return (CAGR) in of 25.3% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to SPY (11.3%).

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The 30 days standard deviation over 5 years of World Countries South America is 26.7%, which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (21.5%) in the same period.
- Looking at 30 days standard deviation in of 25.1% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (17.9%).

'Downside risk is the financial risk associated with losses. That is, it is the risk of the actual return being below the expected return, or the uncertainty about the magnitude of that difference. Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The downside risk over 5 years of World Countries South America is 19%, which is higher, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (15.5%) in the same period.
- Looking at downside volatility in of 17% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (12.5%).

'The Sharpe ratio was developed by Nobel laureate William F. Sharpe, and is used to help investors understand the return of an investment compared to its risk. The ratio is the average return earned in excess of the risk-free rate per unit of volatility or total risk. Subtracting the risk-free rate from the mean return allows an investor to better isolate the profits associated with risk-taking activities. One intuition of this calculation is that a portfolio engaging in 'zero risk' investments, such as the purchase of U.S. Treasury bills (for which the expected return is the risk-free rate), has a Sharpe ratio of exactly zero. Generally, the greater the value of the Sharpe ratio, the more attractive the risk-adjusted return.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) over 5 years of World Countries South America is 0.46, which is higher, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (0.35) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the Sharpe Ratio is 0.91, which is larger, thus better than the value of 0.49 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The downside risk / excess return profile over 5 years of World Countries South America is 0.65, which is greater, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (0.48) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the downside risk / excess return profile is 1.35, which is greater, thus better than the value of 0.71 from the benchmark.

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The Downside risk index over 5 years of World Countries South America is 12 , which is higher, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (9.55 ) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (10 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Downside risk index of 9.69 is lower, thus better.

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the maximum reduction from previous high of -45 days in the last 5 years of World Countries South America, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days)
- Compared with SPY (-24.5 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum DrawDown of -28.8 days is smaller, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the maximum days under water of 220 days in the last 5 years of World Countries South America, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (431 days)
- During the last 3 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark is 201 days, which is lower, thus better than the value of 431 days from the benchmark.

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The average days below previous high over 5 years of World Countries South America is 56 days, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (105 days) in the same period.
- Looking at average days below previous high in of 42 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to SPY (144 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of World Countries South America are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.