This is the low volatility version of the Global Sector Rotation Strategy and is used as a sub-strategy. It picks on a monthly basis the top two performing global sectors.

EEM – iShares MSCI Emerging Markets

DBEM – Emerging Markets Equity Fund

EPP – iShares MSCI Pacific ex-Japan

DBAP – MSCI AC Asia Pacific ex Japan Hedged Equity Fund

FEZ – SPDR Euro STOXX 50

HEDJ – Europe Hedged Equity Fund

IHDG – WisdomTree Int’l Hedged Quality Divident ETF

MDY – S&P MidCap 400

From the HEDGE sub-strategy:

GLD – SPDR Gold Shares

TLT– iShares Barclays Long-Term Treasury (15-18yr)

From the Short Sectors sub-strategy:

SMN - ProShares UltraShort Basic Materials

ERY - Direxion Daily Energy Bear 3X ETF

SKF - ProShares UltraShort Financials

SIJ - ProShares UltraShort Industrial

REW - ProShares UltraShort Technolog

RXD - ProShares UltraShort Health Car

SCC - ProShares UltraShort Consumer Service

SDP - ProShares UltraShort Utilitie

SZK - ProShares UltraShort Consumer Goods

'Total return, when measuring performance, is the actual rate of return of an investment or a pool of investments over a given evaluation period. Total return includes interest, capital gains, dividends and distributions realized over a given period of time. Total return accounts for two categories of return: income including interest paid by fixed-income investments, distributions or dividends and capital appreciation, representing the change in the market price of an asset.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (62.6%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return of 76.2% of GSRS Low Volatility Sub-strategy is greater, thus better.
- Compared with SPY (32.1%) in the period of the last 3 years, the total return, or increase in value of 52.3% is higher, thus better.

'The compound annual growth rate isn't a true return rate, but rather a representational figure. It is essentially a number that describes the rate at which an investment would have grown if it had grown the same rate every year and the profits were reinvested at the end of each year. In reality, this sort of performance is unlikely. However, CAGR can be used to smooth returns so that they may be more easily understood when compared to alternative investments.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the annual return (CAGR) of 12% in the last 5 years of GSRS Low Volatility Sub-strategy, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (10.2%)
- Looking at compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) in of 15% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to SPY (9.7%).

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the 30 days standard deviation of 16.5% in the last 5 years of GSRS Low Volatility Sub-strategy, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (21.5%)
- During the last 3 years, the historical 30 days volatility is 19.7%, which is smaller, thus better than the value of 24.8% from the benchmark.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the downside volatility of 12% in the last 5 years of GSRS Low Volatility Sub-strategy, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (15.6%)
- During the last 3 years, the downside volatility is 14.3%, which is lower, thus better than the value of 17.9% from the benchmark.

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the risk / return profile (Sharpe) of 0.58 in the last 5 years of GSRS Low Volatility Sub-strategy, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.36)
- During the last 3 years, the Sharpe Ratio is 0.64, which is greater, thus better than the value of 0.29 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The downside risk / excess return profile over 5 years of GSRS Low Volatility Sub-strategy is 0.8, which is higher, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (0.5) in the same period.
- Looking at ratio of annual return and downside deviation in of 0.88 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to SPY (0.4).

'Ulcer Index is a method for measuring investment risk that addresses the real concerns of investors, unlike the widely used standard deviation of return. UI is a measure of the depth and duration of drawdowns in prices from earlier highs. Using Ulcer Index instead of standard deviation can lead to very different conclusions about investment risk and risk-adjusted return, especially when evaluating strategies that seek to avoid major declines in portfolio value (market timing, dynamic asset allocation, hedge funds, etc.). The Ulcer Index was originally developed in 1987. Since then, it has been widely recognized and adopted by the investment community. According to Nelson Freeburg, editor of Formula Research, Ulcer Index is “perhaps the most fully realized statistical portrait of risk there is.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the Downside risk index of 5.92 in the last 5 years of GSRS Low Volatility Sub-strategy, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (8.52 )
- Looking at Ulcer Index in of 7.2 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to SPY (10 ).

'Maximum drawdown is defined as the peak-to-trough decline of an investment during a specific period. It is usually quoted as a percentage of the peak value. The maximum drawdown can be calculated based on absolute returns, in order to identify strategies that suffer less during market downturns, such as low-volatility strategies. However, the maximum drawdown can also be calculated based on returns relative to a benchmark index, for identifying strategies that show steady outperformance over time.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum DrawDown of -33 days of GSRS Low Volatility Sub-strategy is greater, thus better.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum reduction from previous high is -33 days, which is greater, thus better than the value of -33.7 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 253 days in the last 5 years of GSRS Low Volatility Sub-strategy, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (235 days)
- Compared with SPY (235 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 168 days is smaller, thus better.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the average days below previous high of 61 days in the last 5 years of GSRS Low Volatility Sub-strategy, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (55 days)
- During the last 3 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark is 49 days, which is lower, thus better than the value of 59 days from the benchmark.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of GSRS Low Volatility Sub-strategy are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.