'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark DIA (112.4%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return of 198.4% of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged is larger, thus better.
- Compared with DIA (40.1%) in the period of the last 3 years, the total return, or increase in value of 63.5% is greater, thus better.

'Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period. CAGR is not an accounting term, but it is often used to describe some element of the business, for example revenue, units delivered, registered users, etc. CAGR dampens the effect of volatility of periodic returns that can render arithmetic means irrelevant. It is particularly useful to compare growth rates from various data sets of common domain such as revenue growth of companies in the same industry.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The annual return (CAGR) over 5 years of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged is 24.5%, which is higher, thus better compared to the benchmark DIA (16.3%) in the same period.
- Compared with DIA (11.9%) in the period of the last 3 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 17.8% is larger, thus better.

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the historical 30 days volatility of 22% in the last 5 years of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark DIA (19.9%)
- Looking at historical 30 days volatility in of 25.9% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to DIA (24.1%).

'Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the downside deviation of 15.7% in the last 5 years of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark DIA (14.4%)
- Compared with DIA (17.5%) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside deviation of 18.7% is larger, thus worse.

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of 1 in the last 5 years of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to the benchmark DIA (0.69)
- Looking at risk / return profile (Sharpe) in of 0.59 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to DIA (0.39).

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of 1.4 in the last 5 years of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to the benchmark DIA (0.96)
- During the last 3 years, the downside risk / excess return profile is 0.82, which is larger, thus better than the value of 0.54 from the benchmark.

'Ulcer Index is a method for measuring investment risk that addresses the real concerns of investors, unlike the widely used standard deviation of return. UI is a measure of the depth and duration of drawdowns in prices from earlier highs. Using Ulcer Index instead of standard deviation can lead to very different conclusions about investment risk and risk-adjusted return, especially when evaluating strategies that seek to avoid major declines in portfolio value (market timing, dynamic asset allocation, hedge funds, etc.). The Ulcer Index was originally developed in 1987. Since then, it has been widely recognized and adopted by the investment community. According to Nelson Freeburg, editor of Formula Research, Ulcer Index is “perhaps the most fully realized statistical portrait of risk there is.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The Ulcer Index over 5 years of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged is 5.87 , which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark DIA (6.28 ) in the same period.
- Compared with DIA (7.58 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Ulcer Ratio of 7.28 is lower, thus better.

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark DIA (-36.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum reduction from previous high of -33.4 days of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged is higher, thus better.
- Looking at maximum drop from peak to valley in of -33.4 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to DIA (-36.7 days).

'The Maximum Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. It is the length of time the account was in the Max Drawdown. A Max Drawdown measures a retrenchment from when an equity curve reaches a new high. It’s the maximum an account lost during that retrenchment. This method is applied because a valley can’t be measured until a new high occurs. Once the new high is reached, the percentage change from the old high to the bottom of the largest trough is recorded.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the maximum days under water of 156 days in the last 5 years of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark DIA (187 days)
- During the last 3 years, the maximum days below previous high is 156 days, which is lower, thus better than the value of 187 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the average time in days below previous high water mark of 31 days in the last 5 years of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark DIA (45 days)
- During the last 3 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark is 36 days, which is lower, thus better than the value of 48 days from the benchmark.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.