'Total return is the amount of value an investor earns from a security over a specific period, typically one year, when all distributions are reinvested. Total return is expressed as a percentage of the amount invested. For example, a total return of 20% means the security increased by 20% of its original value due to a price increase, distribution of dividends (if a stock), coupons (if a bond) or capital gains (if a fund). Total return is a strong measure of an investment’s overall performance.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark DIA (82.8%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return of 168.2% of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged is greater, thus better.
- Compared with DIA (53.9%) in the period of the last 3 years, the total return, or increase in value of 106.8% is greater, thus better.

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The annual return (CAGR) over 5 years of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged is 21.8%, which is greater, thus better compared to the benchmark DIA (12.8%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the annual performance (CAGR) is 27.4%, which is higher, thus better than the value of 15.5% from the benchmark.

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The volatility over 5 years of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged is 15.6%, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark DIA (13.4%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the 30 days standard deviation is 15.3%, which is higher, thus worse than the value of 13.3% from the benchmark.

'Downside risk is the financial risk associated with losses. That is, it is the risk of the actual return being below the expected return, or the uncertainty about the magnitude of that difference. Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark DIA (9.6%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside volatility of 10.8% of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged is greater, thus worse.
- Looking at downside risk in of 10.8% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to DIA (9.7%).

'The Sharpe ratio was developed by Nobel laureate William F. Sharpe, and is used to help investors understand the return of an investment compared to its risk. The ratio is the average return earned in excess of the risk-free rate per unit of volatility or total risk. Subtracting the risk-free rate from the mean return allows an investor to better isolate the profits associated with risk-taking activities. One intuition of this calculation is that a portfolio engaging in 'zero risk' investments, such as the purchase of U.S. Treasury bills (for which the expected return is the risk-free rate), has a Sharpe ratio of exactly zero. Generally, the greater the value of the Sharpe ratio, the more attractive the risk-adjusted return.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The risk / return profile (Sharpe) over 5 years of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged is 1.24, which is greater, thus better compared to the benchmark DIA (0.77) in the same period.
- Compared with DIA (0.97) in the period of the last 3 years, the Sharpe Ratio of 1.63 is larger, thus better.

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The ratio of annual return and downside deviation over 5 years of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged is 1.79, which is larger, thus better compared to the benchmark DIA (1.07) in the same period.
- Looking at downside risk / excess return profile in of 2.31 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to DIA (1.34).

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark DIA (4.24 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Downside risk index of 3.56 of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged is lower, thus better.
- Looking at Ulcer Ratio in of 3.01 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to DIA (4.24 ).

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The maximum reduction from previous high over 5 years of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged is -16.6 days, which is higher, thus better compared to the benchmark DIA (-18.1 days) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum DrawDown is -12.5 days, which is larger, thus better than the value of -18.1 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs). Many assume Max DD Duration is the length of time between new highs during which the Max DD (magnitude) occurred. But that isn’t always the case. The Max DD duration is the longest time between peaks, period. So it could be the time when the program also had its biggest peak to valley loss (and usually is, because the program needs a long time to recover from the largest loss), but it doesn’t have to be'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 135 days in the last 5 years of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark DIA (227 days)
- Compared with DIA (161 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum days under water of 94 days is lower, thus better.

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the average time in days below previous high water mark of 29 days in the last 5 years of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark DIA (54 days)
- During the last 3 years, the average days under water is 20 days, which is lower, thus better than the value of 45 days from the benchmark.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.