'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the total return, or performance of 97.7% in the last 5 years of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to the benchmark DIA (63%)
- During the last 3 years, the total return, or performance is 23.1%, which is higher, thus better than the value of 18.7% from the benchmark.

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 14.6% in the last 5 years of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to the benchmark DIA (10.3%)
- Compared with DIA (5.9%) in the period of the last 3 years, the annual performance (CAGR) of 7.2% is greater, thus better.

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark DIA (20.6%) in the period of the last 5 years, the volatility of 21.2% of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged is greater, thus worse.
- Looking at historical 30 days volatility in of 16% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to DIA (14.7%).

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark DIA (14.8%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside risk of 14.7% of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged is smaller, thus better.
- Looking at downside deviation in of 11.4% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to DIA (10.3%).

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the Sharpe Ratio of 0.57 in the last 5 years of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to the benchmark DIA (0.38)
- Compared with DIA (0.23) in the period of the last 3 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) of 0.29 is larger, thus better.

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the downside risk / excess return profile of 0.82 in the last 5 years of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to the benchmark DIA (0.52)
- During the last 3 years, the downside risk / excess return profile is 0.41, which is greater, thus better than the value of 0.33 from the benchmark.

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The Downside risk index over 5 years of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged is 7.41 , which is smaller, thus better compared to the benchmark DIA (7.69 ) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the Ulcer Index is 8.06 , which is higher, thus worse than the value of 7.08 from the benchmark.

'Maximum drawdown is defined as the peak-to-trough decline of an investment during a specific period. It is usually quoted as a percentage of the peak value. The maximum drawdown can be calculated based on absolute returns, in order to identify strategies that suffer less during market downturns, such as low-volatility strategies. However, the maximum drawdown can also be calculated based on returns relative to a benchmark index, for identifying strategies that show steady outperformance over time.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark DIA (-36.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum reduction from previous high of -27.8 days of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged is larger, thus better.
- Compared with DIA (-20.8 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley of -18.1 days is higher, thus better.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs). Many assume Max DD Duration is the length of time between new highs during which the Max DD (magnitude) occurred. But that isn’t always the case. The Max DD duration is the longest time between peaks, period. So it could be the time when the program also had its biggest peak to valley loss (and usually is, because the program needs a long time to recover from the largest loss), but it doesn’t have to be'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 424 days in the last 5 years of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark DIA (477 days)
- Compared with DIA (477 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 424 days is smaller, thus better.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the average days below previous high of 98 days in the last 5 years of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark DIA (123 days)
- During the last 3 years, the average days under water is 138 days, which is lower, thus better than the value of 168 days from the benchmark.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of Dow 30 Strategy unhedged are hypothetical and do not account for slippage, fees or taxes.
- Results may be based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.