'Total return, when measuring performance, is the actual rate of return of an investment or a pool of investments over a given evaluation period. Total return includes interest, capital gains, dividends and distributions realized over a given period of time. Total return accounts for two categories of return: income including interest paid by fixed-income investments, distributions or dividends and capital appreciation, representing the change in the market price of an asset.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the total return, or performance of 151.7% in the last 5 years of Dow 30 Strategy low volatility, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (106.8%)
- Looking at total return, or performance in of 65.7% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (71.9%).

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The annual performance (CAGR) over 5 years of Dow 30 Strategy low volatility is 20.3%, which is larger, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (15.7%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) is 18.3%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 19.8% from the benchmark.

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (18.9%) in the period of the last 5 years, the volatility of 15.9% of Dow 30 Strategy low volatility is smaller, thus better.
- Looking at historical 30 days volatility in of 17.9% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to SPY (21.9%).

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (13.8%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside volatility of 11.2% of Dow 30 Strategy low volatility is lower, thus better.
- Looking at downside deviation in of 12.5% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to SPY (15.9%).

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) over 5 years of Dow 30 Strategy low volatility is 1.12, which is greater, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (0.69) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) is 0.88, which is larger, thus better than the value of 0.79 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The excess return divided by the downside deviation over 5 years of Dow 30 Strategy low volatility is 1.59, which is larger, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (0.95) in the same period.
- Looking at excess return divided by the downside deviation in of 1.26 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to SPY (1.09).

'Ulcer Index is a method for measuring investment risk that addresses the real concerns of investors, unlike the widely used standard deviation of return. UI is a measure of the depth and duration of drawdowns in prices from earlier highs. Using Ulcer Index instead of standard deviation can lead to very different conclusions about investment risk and risk-adjusted return, especially when evaluating strategies that seek to avoid major declines in portfolio value (market timing, dynamic asset allocation, hedge funds, etc.). The Ulcer Index was originally developed in 1987. Since then, it has been widely recognized and adopted by the investment community. According to Nelson Freeburg, editor of Formula Research, Ulcer Index is “perhaps the most fully realized statistical portrait of risk there is.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (5.61 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Downside risk index of 3.6 of Dow 30 Strategy low volatility is smaller, thus better.
- During the last 3 years, the Downside risk index is 4.14 , which is smaller, thus better than the value of 6.08 from the benchmark.

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The maximum DrawDown over 5 years of Dow 30 Strategy low volatility is -26.3 days, which is higher, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley of -26.3 days is greater, thus better.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The maximum days under water over 5 years of Dow 30 Strategy low volatility is 121 days, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (139 days) in the same period.
- Looking at maximum days under water in of 121 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (119 days).

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (32 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark of 29 days of Dow 30 Strategy low volatility is lower, thus better.
- Compared with SPY (22 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average days below previous high of 30 days is larger, thus worse.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of Dow 30 Strategy low volatility are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.