The World Country Asia strategy is a sub-strategy that picks the top country of the specified region. It is part of the World Top 4 investment strategy.

ASHR Deutsche X-Trackers CSI 300 China A Shares

DBKO Xtrackers MSCI South Korea Hdg Eq ETF

EIDO iShares MSCI Indonesia Index

EPHE iShares MSCI Philippines

EPI WisdomTree India Earnings Index

EWJ iShares MSCI Japan Index Fund

EWM iShares MSCI Malaysia Index Fund

EWS iShares MSCI Singapore Index

EWT iShares MSCI Taiwan Index Fund

EWY iShares MSCI South Korea Index Fund

EWZ iShares MSCI Brazil Index Fund

EZA iShares MSCI South Africa Index

FXI iShares FTSE China 25 Index Fund

IDX Market Vectors Indonesia

THD iShares MSCI Thailand Index

VNM Market Vectors Vietnam

From the HEDGE strategy:

GLD – SPDR Gold Shares

TLT– iShares Barclays Long-Term Treasuries (15-18yr)

Short Sectors:

SMN - ProShares UltraShort Basic Materials

ERY - Direxion Daily Energy Bear 3X ETF

SKF - ProShares UltraShort Financials

SIJ - ProShares UltraShort Industrial

REW - ProShares UltraShort Technology

RXD - ProShares UltraShort Health Car

SCC - ProShares UltraShort Consumer Service

SDP - ProShares UltraShort Utilities

SZK - ProShares UltraShort Consumer Goods

'Total return is the amount of value an investor earns from a security over a specific period, typically one year, when all distributions are reinvested. Total return is expressed as a percentage of the amount invested. For example, a total return of 20% means the security increased by 20% of its original value due to a price increase, distribution of dividends (if a stock), coupons (if a bond) or capital gains (if a fund). Total return is a strong measure of an investment’s overall performance.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (55.3%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return, or performance of 24.9% of World Countries Asia is smaller, thus worse.
- Looking at total return in of 0.8% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (33%).

'Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period. CAGR is not an accounting term, but it is often used to describe some element of the business, for example revenue, units delivered, registered users, etc. CAGR dampens the effect of volatility of periodic returns that can render arithmetic means irrelevant. It is particularly useful to compare growth rates from various data sets of common domain such as revenue growth of companies in the same industry.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The annual return (CAGR) over 5 years of World Countries Asia is 4.6%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (9.2%) in the same period.
- Looking at compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) in of 0.3% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (10%).

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the historical 30 days volatility of 15.3% in the last 5 years of World Countries Asia, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (13.6%)
- Compared with SPY (13.5%) in the period of the last 3 years, the 30 days standard deviation of 12.1% is lower, thus better.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the downside volatility of 10.6% in the last 5 years of World Countries Asia, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (10%)
- Compared with SPY (10.1%) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside deviation of 8.9% is lower, thus better.

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of 0.13 in the last 5 years of World Countries Asia, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.49)
- Compared with SPY (0.55) in the period of the last 3 years, the Sharpe Ratio of -0.18 is lower, thus worse.

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the excess return divided by the downside deviation of 0.19 in the last 5 years of World Countries Asia, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.67)
- Compared with SPY (0.74) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside risk / excess return profile of -0.25 is smaller, thus worse.

'Ulcer Index is a method for measuring investment risk that addresses the real concerns of investors, unlike the widely used standard deviation of return. UI is a measure of the depth and duration of drawdowns in prices from earlier highs. Using Ulcer Index instead of standard deviation can lead to very different conclusions about investment risk and risk-adjusted return, especially when evaluating strategies that seek to avoid major declines in portfolio value (market timing, dynamic asset allocation, hedge funds, etc.). The Ulcer Index was originally developed in 1987. Since then, it has been widely recognized and adopted by the investment community. According to Nelson Freeburg, editor of Formula Research, Ulcer Index is “perhaps the most fully realized statistical portrait of risk there is.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The Ulcer Ratio over 5 years of World Countries Asia is 7.55 , which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (4 ) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the Downside risk index is 7.75 , which is larger, thus worse than the value of 4.14 from the benchmark.

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the maximum drop from peak to valley of -22.3 days in the last 5 years of World Countries Asia, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-19.3 days)
- Looking at maximum drop from peak to valley in of -22.3 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (-19.3 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (187 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 473 days of World Countries Asia is larger, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark is 473 days, which is greater, thus worse than the value of 139 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The average days below previous high over 5 years of World Countries Asia is 119 days, which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (42 days) in the same period.
- Looking at average time in days below previous high water mark in of 165 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (36 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of World Countries Asia are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.