The World Country Africa strategy is a sub-strategy that picks the top country of the specified region. It is part of the World Top 4 investment strategy.

AFK Market Vectors Africa Index

EGPT Market Vectors Egypt Index

EIS iShares MSCI Israel

EZA iShares MSCI South Africa Index

FM iShares MSCI Frontier Markets ETF

FRN Guggenheim BNY Mellon Frontier Mkts

GULF WisdomTree Middle East Dividend Index

GREK Global X FTSE Greece 20

RSX Market Vectors DAXglobal Russia

TUR iShares MSCI Turkey

From the HEDGE strategy:

GLD – SPDR Gold Shares

TLT– iShares Barclays Long-Term Treasuries (15-18yr)

Short Sectors:

SMN - ProShares UltraShort Basic Materials

ERY - Direxion Daily Energy Bear 3X ETF

SKF - ProShares UltraShort Financials

SIJ - ProShares UltraShort Industrial

REW - ProShares UltraShort Technology

RXD - ProShares UltraShort Health Car

SCC - ProShares UltraShort Consumer Service

SDP - ProShares UltraShort Utilities

SZK - ProShares UltraShort Consumer Goods

'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the total return, or performance of -99.7% in the last 5 years of World Countries Africa, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (66.6%)
- During the last 3 years, the total return is -99.7%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 36.1% from the benchmark.

'The compound annual growth rate isn't a true return rate, but rather a representational figure. It is essentially a number that describes the rate at which an investment would have grown if it had grown the same rate every year and the profits were reinvested at the end of each year. In reality, this sort of performance is unlikely. However, CAGR can be used to smooth returns so that they may be more easily understood when compared to alternative investments.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the annual performance (CAGR) of -68% in the last 5 years of World Countries Africa, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (10.8%)
- During the last 3 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) is -86.4%, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 10.8% from the benchmark.

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the volatility of 47.6% in the last 5 years of World Countries Africa, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (19%)
- Compared with SPY (22%) in the period of the last 3 years, the volatility of 60.5% is higher, thus worse.

'Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (13.9%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside deviation of 46.1% of World Countries Africa is larger, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the downside risk is 59.1%, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 16.2% from the benchmark.

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the risk / return profile (Sharpe) of -1.48 in the last 5 years of World Countries Africa, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.43)
- Compared with SPY (0.38) in the period of the last 3 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) of -1.47 is smaller, thus worse.

'The Sortino ratio measures the risk-adjusted return of an investment asset, portfolio, or strategy. It is a modification of the Sharpe ratio but penalizes only those returns falling below a user-specified target or required rate of return, while the Sharpe ratio penalizes both upside and downside volatility equally. Though both ratios measure an investment's risk-adjusted return, they do so in significantly different ways that will frequently lead to differing conclusions as to the true nature of the investment's return-generating efficiency. The Sortino ratio is used as a way to compare the risk-adjusted performance of programs with differing risk and return profiles. In general, risk-adjusted returns seek to normalize the risk across programs and then see which has the higher return unit per risk.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the downside risk / excess return profile of -1.53 in the last 5 years of World Countries Africa, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.59)
- During the last 3 years, the excess return divided by the downside deviation is -1.5, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 0.52 from the benchmark.

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the Ulcer Index of 26 in the last 5 years of World Countries Africa, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (5.9 )
- Looking at Ulcer Index in of 33 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (6.98 ).

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the maximum reduction from previous high of -99.9 days in the last 5 years of World Countries Africa, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days)
- Compared with SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley of -99.9 days is lower, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The maximum days below previous high over 5 years of World Countries Africa is 313 days, which is higher, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (187 days) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (139 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum days under water of 237 days is higher, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The average time in days below previous high water mark over 5 years of World Countries Africa is 84 days, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (44 days) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (41 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average days under water of 67 days is larger, thus worse.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of World Countries Africa are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.