The World Country Africa strategy is a sub-strategy that picks the top country of the specified region. It is part of the World Top 4 investment strategy.

AFK Market Vectors Africa Index

EGPT Market Vectors Egypt Index

EIS iShares MSCI Israel

EZA iShares MSCI South Africa Index

FM iShares MSCI Frontier Markets ETF

FRN Guggenheim BNY Mellon Frontier Mkts

GULF WisdomTree Middle East Dividend Index

GREK Global X FTSE Greece 20

RSX Market Vectors DAXglobal Russia

TUR iShares MSCI Turkey

From the HEDGE strategy:

GLD – SPDR Gold Shares

TLT– iShares Barclays Long-Term Treasuries (15-18yr)

Short Sectors:

SMN - ProShares UltraShort Basic Materials

ERY - Direxion Daily Energy Bear 3X ETF

SKF - ProShares UltraShort Financials

SIJ - ProShares UltraShort Industrial

REW - ProShares UltraShort Technology

RXD - ProShares UltraShort Health Car

SCC - ProShares UltraShort Consumer Service

SDP - ProShares UltraShort Utilities

SZK - ProShares UltraShort Consumer Goods

'Total return, when measuring performance, is the actual rate of return of an investment or a pool of investments over a given evaluation period. Total return includes interest, capital gains, dividends and distributions realized over a given period of time. Total return accounts for two categories of return: income including interest paid by fixed-income investments, distributions or dividends and capital appreciation, representing the change in the market price of an asset.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The total return, or performance over 5 years of World Countries Africa is -99.7%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (35.3%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (13.2%) in the period of the last 3 years, the total return of -99.7% is smaller, thus worse.

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (6.2%) in the period of the last 5 years, the annual performance (CAGR) of -68% of World Countries Africa is lower, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the annual performance (CAGR) is -85.9%, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 4.2% from the benchmark.

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The historical 30 days volatility over 5 years of World Countries Africa is 47.1%, which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (18%) in the same period.
- Looking at volatility in of 59.4% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (20.3%).

'Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The downside deviation over 5 years of World Countries Africa is 45.9%, which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (13.4%) in the same period.
- Looking at downside volatility in of 58.5% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (15.3%).

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the risk / return profile (Sharpe) of -1.5 in the last 5 years of World Countries Africa, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.21)
- Compared with SPY (0.09) in the period of the last 3 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) of -1.49 is lower, thus worse.

'The Sortino ratio measures the risk-adjusted return of an investment asset, portfolio, or strategy. It is a modification of the Sharpe ratio but penalizes only those returns falling below a user-specified target or required rate of return, while the Sharpe ratio penalizes both upside and downside volatility equally. Though both ratios measure an investment's risk-adjusted return, they do so in significantly different ways that will frequently lead to differing conclusions as to the true nature of the investment's return-generating efficiency. The Sortino ratio is used as a way to compare the risk-adjusted performance of programs with differing risk and return profiles. In general, risk-adjusted returns seek to normalize the risk across programs and then see which has the higher return unit per risk.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The excess return divided by the downside deviation over 5 years of World Countries Africa is -1.54, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.28) in the same period.
- Looking at ratio of annual return and downside deviation in of -1.51 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.11).

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (5.12 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Ulcer Index of 13 of World Countries Africa is larger, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (5.86 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Ulcer Ratio of 16 is greater, thus worse.

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The maximum reduction from previous high over 5 years of World Countries Africa is -99.9 days, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum DrawDown is -99.9 days, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of -33.7 days from the benchmark.

'The Maximum Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. It is the length of time the account was in the Max Drawdown. A Max Drawdown measures a retrenchment from when an equity curve reaches a new high. It’s the maximum an account lost during that retrenchment. This method is applied because a valley can’t be measured until a new high occurs. Once the new high is reached, the percentage change from the old high to the bottom of the largest trough is recorded.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (187 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 363 days of World Countries Africa is greater, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (139 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum days below previous high of 143 days is higher, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (42 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark of 80 days of World Countries Africa is larger, thus worse.
- Looking at average time in days below previous high water mark in of 35 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to SPY (36 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of World Countries Africa are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.