This is an alternative, 2 times leveraged version of the US Market Strategy using:

- DDM ProShares Ultra Dow30
- QLD ProShares Ultra
- SSO ProShares Ultra S&P500

See more about the US Market Strategy.

'Total return, when measuring performance, is the actual rate of return of an investment or a pool of investments over a given evaluation period. Total return includes interest, capital gains, dividends and distributions realized over a given period of time. Total return accounts for two categories of return: income including interest paid by fixed-income investments, distributions or dividends and capital appreciation, representing the change in the market price of an asset.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (110.8%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return, or performance of 238.6% of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage is greater, thus better.
- Looking at total return, or performance in of 106.4% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to SPY (50.8%).

'The compound annual growth rate isn't a true return rate, but rather a representational figure. It is essentially a number that describes the rate at which an investment would have grown if it had grown the same rate every year and the profits were reinvested at the end of each year. In reality, this sort of performance is unlikely. However, CAGR can be used to smooth returns so that they may be more easily understood when compared to alternative investments.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (16.1%) in the period of the last 5 years, the annual performance (CAGR) of 27.7% of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage is greater, thus better.
- During the last 3 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) is 27.3%, which is larger, thus better than the value of 14.7% from the benchmark.

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the volatility of 19.5% in the last 5 years of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (18.7%)
- Looking at historical 30 days volatility in of 22.4% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to SPY (22.7%).

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (13.6%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside volatility of 13.9% of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage is greater, thus worse.
- Looking at downside volatility in of 16% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to SPY (16.5%).

'The Sharpe ratio was developed by Nobel laureate William F. Sharpe, and is used to help investors understand the return of an investment compared to its risk. The ratio is the average return earned in excess of the risk-free rate per unit of volatility or total risk. Subtracting the risk-free rate from the mean return allows an investor to better isolate the profits associated with risk-taking activities. One intuition of this calculation is that a portfolio engaging in 'zero risk' investments, such as the purchase of U.S. Treasury bills (for which the expected return is the risk-free rate), has a Sharpe ratio of exactly zero. Generally, the greater the value of the Sharpe ratio, the more attractive the risk-adjusted return.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.73) in the period of the last 5 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of 1.29 of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage is higher, thus better.
- Looking at ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) in of 1.1 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to SPY (0.54).

'The Sortino ratio measures the risk-adjusted return of an investment asset, portfolio, or strategy. It is a modification of the Sharpe ratio but penalizes only those returns falling below a user-specified target or required rate of return, while the Sharpe ratio penalizes both upside and downside volatility equally. Though both ratios measure an investment's risk-adjusted return, they do so in significantly different ways that will frequently lead to differing conclusions as to the true nature of the investment's return-generating efficiency. The Sortino ratio is used as a way to compare the risk-adjusted performance of programs with differing risk and return profiles. In general, risk-adjusted returns seek to normalize the risk across programs and then see which has the higher return unit per risk.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the excess return divided by the downside deviation of 1.8 in the last 5 years of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (1)
- During the last 3 years, the downside risk / excess return profile is 1.55, which is greater, thus better than the value of 0.74 from the benchmark.

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the Ulcer Ratio of 6.1 in the last 5 years of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (5.58 )
- During the last 3 years, the Downside risk index is 6.29 , which is lower, thus better than the value of 6.91 from the benchmark.

'Maximum drawdown is defined as the peak-to-trough decline of an investment during a specific period. It is usually quoted as a percentage of the peak value. The maximum drawdown can be calculated based on absolute returns, in order to identify strategies that suffer less during market downturns, such as low-volatility strategies. However, the maximum drawdown can also be calculated based on returns relative to a benchmark index, for identifying strategies that show steady outperformance over time.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley of -25.8 days of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage is larger, thus better.
- Compared with SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum DrawDown of -25.8 days is greater, thus better.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the maximum days below previous high of 264 days in the last 5 years of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (139 days)
- Looking at maximum days below previous high in of 165 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (139 days).

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (33 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the average days below previous high of 56 days of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage is larger, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (36 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average days under water of 42 days is greater, thus worse.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of US Market Strategy 2x Leverage are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.