Description

United Airlines Holdings, Inc., through its subsidiaries, provides air transportation services in North America, Asia, Europe, Africa, the Pacific, the Middle East, and Latin America. It transports people and cargo through its mainline and regional fleets. As of February 28, 2020, the company operated approximately 791 mainline aircraft. It also sells fuel; and offers catering, ground handling, and maintenance services for third parties. The company was formerly known as United Continental Holdings, Inc. and changed its name to United Airlines Holdings, Inc. in June 2019. United Airlines Holdings, Inc. was founded in 1934 and is headquartered in Chicago, Illinois.

Statistics (YTD)

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TotalReturn:

'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:
  • The total return, or performance over 5 years of United Airlines is -25.2%, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (58.9%) in the same period.
  • Compared with SPY (33.9%) in the period of the last 3 years, the total return, or increase in value of -32.9% is lower, thus worse.

CAGR:

'The compound annual growth rate isn't a true return rate, but rather a representational figure. It is essentially a number that describes the rate at which an investment would have grown if it had grown the same rate every year and the profits were reinvested at the end of each year. In reality, this sort of performance is unlikely. However, CAGR can be used to smooth returns so that they may be more easily understood when compared to alternative investments.'

Which means for our asset as example:
  • Looking at the annual return (CAGR) of -5.7% in the last 5 years of United Airlines, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (9.7%)
  • During the last 3 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) is -12.4%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 10.2% from the benchmark.

Volatility:

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:
  • Looking at the 30 days standard deviation of 58.7% in the last 5 years of United Airlines, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (21.6%)
  • Looking at volatility in of 72.5% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (25%).

DownVol:

'Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:
  • Compared with the benchmark SPY (15.7%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside risk of 40.3% of United Airlines is higher, thus worse.
  • During the last 3 years, the downside volatility is 49.7%, which is higher, thus worse than the value of 18.1% from the benchmark.

Sharpe:

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Which means for our asset as example:
  • Looking at the Sharpe Ratio of -0.14 in the last 5 years of United Airlines, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.33)
  • Looking at Sharpe Ratio in of -0.21 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.31).

Sortino:

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Which means for our asset as example:
  • Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.46) in the period of the last 5 years, the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of -0.2 of United Airlines is smaller, thus worse.
  • Compared with SPY (0.43) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside risk / excess return profile of -0.3 is smaller, thus worse.

Ulcer:

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:
  • Compared with the benchmark SPY (8.91 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Downside risk index of 44 of United Airlines is higher, thus worse.
  • Compared with SPY (11 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Ulcer Index of 49 is higher, thus worse.

MaxDD:

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:
  • Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum DrawDown of -79.4 days of United Airlines is smaller, thus worse.
  • Compared with SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum reduction from previous high of -75.8 days is smaller, thus worse.

MaxDuration:

'The Maximum Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. It is the length of time the account was in the Max Drawdown. A Max Drawdown measures a retrenchment from when an equity curve reaches a new high. It’s the maximum an account lost during that retrenchment. This method is applied because a valley can’t be measured until a new high occurs. Once the new high is reached, the percentage change from the old high to the bottom of the largest trough is recorded.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:
  • Looking at the maximum days under water of 1048 days in the last 5 years of United Airlines, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (271 days)
  • Looking at maximum days under water in of 748 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (271 days).

AveDuration:

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:
  • The average time in days below previous high water mark over 5 years of United Airlines is 451 days, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (60 days) in the same period.
  • During the last 3 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark is 373 days, which is higher, thus worse than the value of 72 days from the benchmark.

Performance (YTD)

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.

Allocations ()

Allocations

Returns (%)

  • Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
  • Performance results of United Airlines are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.