'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the total return of 375.2% in the last 5 years of Old Dominion Freight Line, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (81.5%)
- During the last 3 years, the total return, or performance is 177.3%, which is greater, thus better than the value of 48.1% from the benchmark.

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (12.7%) in the period of the last 5 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 36.6% of Old Dominion Freight Line is larger, thus better.
- Looking at annual return (CAGR) in of 40.5% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to SPY (14%).

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The 30 days standard deviation over 5 years of Old Dominion Freight Line is 32.3%, which is higher, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (20.5%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the 30 days standard deviation is 35.1%, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 23.8% from the benchmark.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the downside deviation of 22.3% in the last 5 years of Old Dominion Freight Line, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (15%)
- During the last 3 years, the downside deviation is 24.1%, which is higher, thus worse than the value of 17.3% from the benchmark.

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.5) in the period of the last 5 years, the Sharpe Ratio of 1.06 of Old Dominion Freight Line is greater, thus better.
- During the last 3 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) is 1.08, which is greater, thus better than the value of 0.48 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The ratio of annual return and downside deviation over 5 years of Old Dominion Freight Line is 1.53, which is greater, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (0.68) in the same period.
- Looking at downside risk / excess return profile in of 1.58 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to SPY (0.66).

'Ulcer Index is a method for measuring investment risk that addresses the real concerns of investors, unlike the widely used standard deviation of return. UI is a measure of the depth and duration of drawdowns in prices from earlier highs. Using Ulcer Index instead of standard deviation can lead to very different conclusions about investment risk and risk-adjusted return, especially when evaluating strategies that seek to avoid major declines in portfolio value (market timing, dynamic asset allocation, hedge funds, etc.). The Ulcer Index was originally developed in 1987. Since then, it has been widely recognized and adopted by the investment community. According to Nelson Freeburg, editor of Formula Research, Ulcer Index is “perhaps the most fully realized statistical portrait of risk there is.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (7.13 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Downside risk index of 12 of Old Dominion Freight Line is greater, thus worse.
- Looking at Downside risk index in of 11 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (8.25 ).

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum DrawDown of -36.1 days of Old Dominion Freight Line is lower, thus worse.
- Looking at maximum reduction from previous high in of -36.1 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (-33.7 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The maximum days below previous high over 5 years of Old Dominion Freight Line is 227 days, which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (150 days) in the same period.
- Looking at maximum time in days below previous high water mark in of 168 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (150 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (41 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark of 47 days of Old Dominion Freight Line is greater, thus worse.
- Looking at average days under water in of 33 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to SPY (36 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of Old Dominion Freight Line are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.