'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (62.7%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return, or performance of 259.6% of MercadoLibre is higher, thus better.
- Looking at total return, or performance in of 69.6% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to SPY (34.7%).

'The compound annual growth rate isn't a true return rate, but rather a representational figure. It is essentially a number that describes the rate at which an investment would have grown if it had grown the same rate every year and the profits were reinvested at the end of each year. In reality, this sort of performance is unlikely. However, CAGR can be used to smooth returns so that they may be more easily understood when compared to alternative investments.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The annual return (CAGR) over 5 years of MercadoLibre is 29.2%, which is greater, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (10.2%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (10.5%) in the period of the last 3 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 19.3% is greater, thus better.

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the historical 30 days volatility of 56.5% in the last 5 years of MercadoLibre, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (20.9%)
- Compared with SPY (24.1%) in the period of the last 3 years, the volatility of 60.6% is larger, thus worse.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the downside deviation of 38% in the last 5 years of MercadoLibre, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (15.3%)
- During the last 3 years, the downside deviation is 42.1%, which is higher, thus worse than the value of 17.6% from the benchmark.

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The Sharpe Ratio over 5 years of MercadoLibre is 0.47, which is greater, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (0.37) in the same period.
- Looking at ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) in of 0.28 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.33).

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The ratio of annual return and downside deviation over 5 years of MercadoLibre is 0.7, which is higher, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (0.51) in the same period.
- Looking at excess return divided by the downside deviation in of 0.4 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.45).

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The Downside risk index over 5 years of MercadoLibre is 26 , which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (7.71 ) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the Ulcer Index is 31 , which is greater, thus worse than the value of 9.08 from the benchmark.

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the maximum DrawDown of -69.1 days in the last 5 years of MercadoLibre, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days)
- Compared with SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley of -69.1 days is lower, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (189 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 430 days of MercadoLibre is larger, thus worse.
- Looking at maximum days under water in of 430 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (189 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (46 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the average days below previous high of 115 days of MercadoLibre is higher, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (45 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark of 141 days is greater, thus worse.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of MercadoLibre are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.