'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The total return, or performance over 5 years of Green Mountain Coffee Roasters is 125.8%, which is greater, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (63%) in the same period.
- Looking at total return, or performance in of 87.4% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to SPY (33.5%).

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (10.3%) in the period of the last 5 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 17.7% of Green Mountain Coffee Roasters is greater, thus better.
- During the last 3 years, the annual return (CAGR) is 23.3%, which is higher, thus better than the value of 10.1% from the benchmark.

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (21.6%) in the period of the last 5 years, the 30 days standard deviation of 73.6% of Green Mountain Coffee Roasters is larger, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the 30 days standard deviation is 63.6%, which is greater, thus worse than the value of 25.1% from the benchmark.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The downside risk over 5 years of Green Mountain Coffee Roasters is 44.8%, which is higher, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (15.6%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the downside deviation is 31.3%, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 18.1% from the benchmark.

'The Sharpe ratio was developed by Nobel laureate William F. Sharpe, and is used to help investors understand the return of an investment compared to its risk. The ratio is the average return earned in excess of the risk-free rate per unit of volatility or total risk. Subtracting the risk-free rate from the mean return allows an investor to better isolate the profits associated with risk-taking activities. One intuition of this calculation is that a portfolio engaging in 'zero risk' investments, such as the purchase of U.S. Treasury bills (for which the expected return is the risk-free rate), has a Sharpe ratio of exactly zero. Generally, the greater the value of the Sharpe ratio, the more attractive the risk-adjusted return.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the Sharpe Ratio of 0.21 in the last 5 years of Green Mountain Coffee Roasters, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.36)
- Compared with SPY (0.3) in the period of the last 3 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of 0.33 is larger, thus better.

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The ratio of annual return and downside deviation over 5 years of Green Mountain Coffee Roasters is 0.34, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.5) in the same period.
- Looking at excess return divided by the downside deviation in of 0.66 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to SPY (0.42).

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (8.88 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Ulcer Index of 45 of Green Mountain Coffee Roasters is greater, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the Ulcer Ratio is 31 , which is higher, thus worse than the value of 11 from the benchmark.

'Maximum drawdown is defined as the peak-to-trough decline of an investment during a specific period. It is usually quoted as a percentage of the peak value. The maximum drawdown can be calculated based on absolute returns, in order to identify strategies that suffer less during market downturns, such as low-volatility strategies. However, the maximum drawdown can also be calculated based on returns relative to a benchmark index, for identifying strategies that show steady outperformance over time.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley of -84.3 days of Green Mountain Coffee Roasters is lower, thus worse.
- Looking at maximum DrawDown in of -74.5 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (-33.7 days).

'The Maximum Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. It is the length of time the account was in the Max Drawdown. A Max Drawdown measures a retrenchment from when an equity curve reaches a new high. It’s the maximum an account lost during that retrenchment. This method is applied because a valley can’t be measured until a new high occurs. Once the new high is reached, the percentage change from the old high to the bottom of the largest trough is recorded.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the maximum days below previous high of 601 days in the last 5 years of Green Mountain Coffee Roasters, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (273 days)
- Looking at maximum days under water in of 322 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (273 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the average days under water of 199 days in the last 5 years of Green Mountain Coffee Roasters, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (57 days)
- Compared with SPY (73 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average days below previous high of 91 days is greater, thus worse.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of Green Mountain Coffee Roasters are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.