'Total return is the amount of value an investor earns from a security over a specific period, typically one year, when all distributions are reinvested. Total return is expressed as a percentage of the amount invested. For example, a total return of 20% means the security increased by 20% of its original value due to a price increase, distribution of dividends (if a stock), coupons (if a bond) or capital gains (if a fund). Total return is a strong measure of an investment’s overall performance.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The total return over 5 years of Coca-Cola Europacific Partners plc - Ordinary is 49.2%, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (88.1%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (26.1%) in the period of the last 3 years, the total return of 33% is greater, thus better.

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (13.5%) in the period of the last 5 years, the annual performance (CAGR) of 8.3% of Coca-Cola Europacific Partners plc - Ordinary is smaller, thus worse.
- Looking at compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) in of 10% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to SPY (8.1%).

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (20.9%) in the period of the last 5 years, the volatility of 31.8% of Coca-Cola Europacific Partners plc - Ordinary is higher, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (17.3%) in the period of the last 3 years, the volatility of 24.7% is greater, thus worse.

'Downside risk is the financial risk associated with losses. That is, it is the risk of the actual return being below the expected return, or the uncertainty about the magnitude of that difference. Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (15%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside volatility of 22.3% of Coca-Cola Europacific Partners plc - Ordinary is larger, thus worse.
- Looking at downside deviation in of 17.3% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (12.1%).

'The Sharpe ratio was developed by Nobel laureate William F. Sharpe, and is used to help investors understand the return of an investment compared to its risk. The ratio is the average return earned in excess of the risk-free rate per unit of volatility or total risk. Subtracting the risk-free rate from the mean return allows an investor to better isolate the profits associated with risk-taking activities. One intuition of this calculation is that a portfolio engaging in 'zero risk' investments, such as the purchase of U.S. Treasury bills (for which the expected return is the risk-free rate), has a Sharpe ratio of exactly zero. Generally, the greater the value of the Sharpe ratio, the more attractive the risk-adjusted return.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.52) in the period of the last 5 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of 0.18 of Coca-Cola Europacific Partners plc - Ordinary is lower, thus worse.
- Looking at risk / return profile (Sharpe) in of 0.3 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.32).

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.73) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside risk / excess return profile of 0.26 of Coca-Cola Europacific Partners plc - Ordinary is lower, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the downside risk / excess return profile is 0.43, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 0.46 from the benchmark.

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The Ulcer Ratio over 5 years of Coca-Cola Europacific Partners plc - Ordinary is 16 , which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (9.33 ) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (10 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Ulcer Ratio of 11 is higher, thus worse.

'Maximum drawdown is defined as the peak-to-trough decline of an investment during a specific period. It is usually quoted as a percentage of the peak value. The maximum drawdown can be calculated based on absolute returns, in order to identify strategies that suffer less during market downturns, such as low-volatility strategies. However, the maximum drawdown can also be calculated based on returns relative to a benchmark index, for identifying strategies that show steady outperformance over time.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley of -48.8 days of Coca-Cola Europacific Partners plc - Ordinary is lower, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (-24.5 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum DrawDown of -29.5 days is smaller, thus worse.

'The Maximum Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. It is the length of time the account was in the Max Drawdown. A Max Drawdown measures a retrenchment from when an equity curve reaches a new high. It’s the maximum an account lost during that retrenchment. This method is applied because a valley can’t be measured until a new high occurs. Once the new high is reached, the percentage change from the old high to the bottom of the largest trough is recorded.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The maximum time in days below previous high water mark over 5 years of Coca-Cola Europacific Partners plc - Ordinary is 446 days, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (488 days) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (488 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum days below previous high of 446 days is smaller, thus better.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (123 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the average days below previous high of 158 days of Coca-Cola Europacific Partners plc - Ordinary is greater, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the average days under water is 159 days, which is lower, thus better than the value of 179 days from the benchmark.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of Coca-Cola Europacific Partners plc - Ordinary are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.