'Total return, when measuring performance, is the actual rate of return of an investment or a pool of investments over a given evaluation period. Total return includes interest, capital gains, dividends and distributions realized over a given period of time. Total return accounts for two categories of return: income including interest paid by fixed-income investments, distributions or dividends and capital appreciation, representing the change in the market price of an asset.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (81.9%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return of 101.3% of Akamai Technologies is greater, thus better.
- Looking at total return, or performance in of 27% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (46.1%).

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) over 5 years of Akamai Technologies is 15%, which is greater, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (12.7%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (13.5%) in the period of the last 3 years, the annual return (CAGR) of 8.3% is lower, thus worse.

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the historical 30 days volatility of 30.2% in the last 5 years of Akamai Technologies, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (19.8%)
- Compared with SPY (23%) in the period of the last 3 years, the 30 days standard deviation of 30.3% is larger, thus worse.

'Downside risk is the financial risk associated with losses. That is, it is the risk of the actual return being below the expected return, or the uncertainty about the magnitude of that difference. Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the downside deviation of 21.4% in the last 5 years of Akamai Technologies, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (14.5%)
- Looking at downside volatility in of 22.4% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (16.8%).

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.52) in the period of the last 5 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of 0.41 of Akamai Technologies is lower, thus worse.
- Looking at risk / return profile (Sharpe) in of 0.19 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.48).

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of 0.59 in the last 5 years of Akamai Technologies, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.7)
- Looking at excess return divided by the downside deviation in of 0.26 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.65).

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the Ulcer Ratio of 9.82 in the last 5 years of Akamai Technologies, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (6.08 )
- Looking at Ulcer Index in of 8.69 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (6.77 ).

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The maximum DrawDown over 5 years of Akamai Technologies is -30.1 days, which is larger, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum reduction from previous high is -22.4 days, which is higher, thus better than the value of -33.7 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the maximum days under water of 295 days in the last 5 years of Akamai Technologies, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (139 days)
- During the last 3 years, the maximum days under water is 295 days, which is greater, thus worse than the value of 119 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The average time in days below previous high water mark over 5 years of Akamai Technologies is 80 days, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (35 days) in the same period.
- Looking at average days under water in of 78 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (27 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of Akamai Technologies are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.