'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (58.9%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return, or increase in value of 13.3% of Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund is lower, thus worse.
- Looking at total return, or increase in value in of 17.3% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (33.9%).

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) over 5 years of Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund is 2.5%, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (9.7%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (10.2%) in the period of the last 3 years, the annual return (CAGR) of 5.5% is smaller, thus worse.

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The 30 days standard deviation over 5 years of Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund is 19.1%, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (21.6%) in the same period.
- Looking at volatility in of 22.6% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to SPY (25%).

'Downside risk is the financial risk associated with losses. That is, it is the risk of the actual return being below the expected return, or the uncertainty about the magnitude of that difference. Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The downside volatility over 5 years of Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund is 14.1%, which is smaller, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (15.7%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (18.1%) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside volatility of 16.6% is lower, thus better.

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of 0 in the last 5 years of Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.33)
- Looking at risk / return profile (Sharpe) in of 0.13 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.31).

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The excess return divided by the downside deviation over 5 years of Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund is 0, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.46) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the excess return divided by the downside deviation is 0.18, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 0.43 from the benchmark.

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The Downside risk index over 5 years of Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund is 11 , which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (8.91 ) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the Ulcer Index is 13 , which is greater, thus worse than the value of 11 from the benchmark.

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley of -35.1 days of Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund is lower, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum DrawDown of -34.6 days is lower, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs). Many assume Max DD Duration is the length of time between new highs during which the Max DD (magnitude) occurred. But that isn’t always the case. The Max DD duration is the longest time between peaks, period. So it could be the time when the program also had its biggest peak to valley loss (and usually is, because the program needs a long time to recover from the largest loss), but it doesn’t have to be'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the maximum days below previous high of 481 days in the last 5 years of Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (271 days)
- During the last 3 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark is 354 days, which is higher, thus worse than the value of 271 days from the benchmark.

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the average days below previous high of 168 days in the last 5 years of Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (60 days)
- During the last 3 years, the average days below previous high is 118 days, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 72 days from the benchmark.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
[Show Details]

- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.