'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (68.1%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return, or increase in value of 17.6% of Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund is lower, thus worse.
- Looking at total return in of 33% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (47%).

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The annual performance (CAGR) over 5 years of Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund is 3.3%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (11%) in the same period.
- Looking at compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) in of 10% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (13.7%).

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The 30 days standard deviation over 5 years of Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund is 19%, which is smaller, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (21.4%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (18.7%) in the period of the last 3 years, the historical 30 days volatility of 17% is lower, thus better.

'Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (15.4%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside risk of 14% of Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund is smaller, thus better.
- During the last 3 years, the downside volatility is 11.8%, which is smaller, thus better than the value of 13.3% from the benchmark.

'The Sharpe ratio was developed by Nobel laureate William F. Sharpe, and is used to help investors understand the return of an investment compared to its risk. The ratio is the average return earned in excess of the risk-free rate per unit of volatility or total risk. Subtracting the risk-free rate from the mean return allows an investor to better isolate the profits associated with risk-taking activities. One intuition of this calculation is that a portfolio engaging in 'zero risk' investments, such as the purchase of U.S. Treasury bills (for which the expected return is the risk-free rate), has a Sharpe ratio of exactly zero. Generally, the greater the value of the Sharpe ratio, the more attractive the risk-adjusted return.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the Sharpe Ratio of 0.04 in the last 5 years of Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.4)
- Looking at risk / return profile (Sharpe) in of 0.44 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.6).

'The Sortino ratio measures the risk-adjusted return of an investment asset, portfolio, or strategy. It is a modification of the Sharpe ratio but penalizes only those returns falling below a user-specified target or required rate of return, while the Sharpe ratio penalizes both upside and downside volatility equally. Though both ratios measure an investment's risk-adjusted return, they do so in significantly different ways that will frequently lead to differing conclusions as to the true nature of the investment's return-generating efficiency. The Sortino ratio is used as a way to compare the risk-adjusted performance of programs with differing risk and return profiles. In general, risk-adjusted returns seek to normalize the risk across programs and then see which has the higher return unit per risk.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The downside risk / excess return profile over 5 years of Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund is 0.06, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.55) in the same period.
- Looking at ratio of annual return and downside deviation in of 0.63 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.84).

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The Downside risk index over 5 years of Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund is 11 , which is higher, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (9.45 ) in the same period.
- Looking at Ulcer Index in of 11 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (10 ).

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley of -35.1 days of Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund is lower, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum reduction from previous high is -29.7 days, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of -24.5 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (351 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 434 days of Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund is larger, thus worse.
- Looking at maximum days below previous high in of 434 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (351 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The average time in days below previous high water mark over 5 years of Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund is 151 days, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (78 days) in the same period.
- Looking at average time in days below previous high water mark in of 141 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (101 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.