'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (80.4%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return, or performance of 32.2% of Vanguard Small Cap Growth Index Fund is lower, thus worse.
- Looking at total return, or increase in value in of -11.5% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (30.7%).

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The annual performance (CAGR) over 5 years of Vanguard Small Cap Growth Index Fund is 5.8%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (12.6%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the annual performance (CAGR) is -4%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 9.4% from the benchmark.

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The volatility over 5 years of Vanguard Small Cap Growth Index Fund is 26.8%, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (21.3%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (17.6%) in the period of the last 3 years, the historical 30 days volatility of 24.9% is greater, thus worse.

'Downside risk is the financial risk associated with losses. That is, it is the risk of the actual return being below the expected return, or the uncertainty about the magnitude of that difference. Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The downside risk over 5 years of Vanguard Small Cap Growth Index Fund is 19.5%, which is higher, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (15.3%) in the same period.
- Looking at downside risk in of 17.8% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (12.3%).

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the Sharpe Ratio of 0.12 in the last 5 years of Vanguard Small Cap Growth Index Fund, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.47)
- During the last 3 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) is -0.26, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 0.39 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The ratio of annual return and downside deviation over 5 years of Vanguard Small Cap Growth Index Fund is 0.17, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.66) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (0.56) in the period of the last 3 years, the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of -0.36 is lower, thus worse.

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (9.43 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Ulcer Index of 19 of Vanguard Small Cap Growth Index Fund is larger, thus worse.
- Looking at Ulcer Ratio in of 23 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (10 ).

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum reduction from previous high of -38.7 days of Vanguard Small Cap Growth Index Fund is lower, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum DrawDown is -38.4 days, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of -24.5 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The maximum days below previous high over 5 years of Vanguard Small Cap Growth Index Fund is 517 days, which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (479 days) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (479 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum days below previous high of 517 days is higher, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The average days below previous high over 5 years of Vanguard Small Cap Growth Index Fund is 141 days, which is higher, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (119 days) in the same period.
- Looking at average days below previous high in of 207 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (173 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
[Show Details]

- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of Vanguard Small Cap Growth Index Fund are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.