'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the total return, or increase in value of -54.5% in the last 5 years of VelocityShares Inverse VIX Medium Term ETN, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (78.4%)
- During the last 3 years, the total return, or increase in value is -60.1%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 44.1% from the benchmark.

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The annual performance (CAGR) over 5 years of VelocityShares Inverse VIX Medium Term ETN is -14.6%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (12.3%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) is -26.3%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 12.9% from the benchmark.

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the historical 30 days volatility of 30.7% in the last 5 years of VelocityShares Inverse VIX Medium Term ETN, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (19.9%)
- During the last 3 years, the historical 30 days volatility is 31.6%, which is greater, thus worse than the value of 23.1% from the benchmark.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The downside deviation over 5 years of VelocityShares Inverse VIX Medium Term ETN is 25.4%, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (14.6%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the downside risk is 27%, which is greater, thus worse than the value of 16.9% from the benchmark.

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The risk / return profile (Sharpe) over 5 years of VelocityShares Inverse VIX Medium Term ETN is -0.56, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.49) in the same period.
- Looking at risk / return profile (Sharpe) in of -0.91 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.45).

'The Sortino ratio measures the risk-adjusted return of an investment asset, portfolio, or strategy. It is a modification of the Sharpe ratio but penalizes only those returns falling below a user-specified target or required rate of return, while the Sharpe ratio penalizes both upside and downside volatility equally. Though both ratios measure an investment's risk-adjusted return, they do so in significantly different ways that will frequently lead to differing conclusions as to the true nature of the investment's return-generating efficiency. The Sortino ratio is used as a way to compare the risk-adjusted performance of programs with differing risk and return profiles. In general, risk-adjusted returns seek to normalize the risk across programs and then see which has the higher return unit per risk.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the downside risk / excess return profile of -0.67 in the last 5 years of VelocityShares Inverse VIX Medium Term ETN, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.67)
- During the last 3 years, the excess return divided by the downside deviation is -1.07, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 0.62 from the benchmark.

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the Ulcer Index of 48 in the last 5 years of VelocityShares Inverse VIX Medium Term ETN, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (6.16 )
- During the last 3 years, the Ulcer Ratio is 54 , which is higher, thus worse than the value of 6.87 from the benchmark.

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The maximum DrawDown over 5 years of VelocityShares Inverse VIX Medium Term ETN is -71.5 days, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley of -65.6 days is lower, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs). Many assume Max DD Duration is the length of time between new highs during which the Max DD (magnitude) occurred. But that isn’t always the case. The Max DD duration is the longest time between peaks, period. So it could be the time when the program also had its biggest peak to valley loss (and usually is, because the program needs a long time to recover from the largest loss), but it doesn’t have to be'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the maximum days under water of 1096 days in the last 5 years of VelocityShares Inverse VIX Medium Term ETN, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (139 days)
- Looking at maximum days under water in of 588 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (119 days).

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The average days below previous high over 5 years of VelocityShares Inverse VIX Medium Term ETN is 498 days, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (35 days) in the same period.
- Looking at average days under water in of 241 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (27 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of VelocityShares Inverse VIX Medium Term ETN are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.