'Total return is the amount of value an investor earns from a security over a specific period, typically one year, when all distributions are reinvested. Total return is expressed as a percentage of the amount invested. For example, a total return of 20% means the security increased by 20% of its original value due to a price increase, distribution of dividends (if a stock), coupons (if a bond) or capital gains (if a fund). Total return is a strong measure of an investment’s overall performance.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the total return of 92.6% in the last 5 years of ProShares UltraShort Yen New, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (60.2%)
- Compared with SPY (36.3%) in the period of the last 3 years, the total return of 110.3% is greater, thus better.

'The compound annual growth rate isn't a true return rate, but rather a representational figure. It is essentially a number that describes the rate at which an investment would have grown if it had grown the same rate every year and the profits were reinvested at the end of each year. In reality, this sort of performance is unlikely. However, CAGR can be used to smooth returns so that they may be more easily understood when compared to alternative investments.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (9.9%) in the period of the last 5 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 14% of ProShares UltraShort Yen New is greater, thus better.
- Compared with SPY (10.9%) in the period of the last 3 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 28.2% is larger, thus better.

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (21.5%) in the period of the last 5 years, the 30 days standard deviation of 17.8% of ProShares UltraShort Yen New is lower, thus better.
- During the last 3 years, the 30 days standard deviation is 18.9%, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 17.9% from the benchmark.

'Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (15.5%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside deviation of 12.6% of ProShares UltraShort Yen New is lower, thus better.
- Compared with SPY (12.5%) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside deviation of 13.3% is larger, thus worse.

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of 0.65 in the last 5 years of ProShares UltraShort Yen New, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.34)
- Compared with SPY (0.47) in the period of the last 3 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) of 1.36 is greater, thus better.

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the excess return divided by the downside deviation of 0.92 in the last 5 years of ProShares UltraShort Yen New, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.48)
- Looking at excess return divided by the downside deviation in of 1.93 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to SPY (0.67).

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The Ulcer Ratio over 5 years of ProShares UltraShort Yen New is 9.39 , which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (9.55 ) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the Downside risk index is 8.74 , which is lower, thus better than the value of 10 from the benchmark.

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the maximum drop from peak to valley of -27.3 days in the last 5 years of ProShares UltraShort Yen New, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days)
- Compared with SPY (-24.5 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum DrawDown of -27.3 days is lower, thus worse.

'The Maximum Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. It is the length of time the account was in the Max Drawdown. A Max Drawdown measures a retrenchment from when an equity curve reaches a new high. It’s the maximum an account lost during that retrenchment. This method is applied because a valley can’t be measured until a new high occurs. Once the new high is reached, the percentage change from the old high to the bottom of the largest trough is recorded.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the maximum days under water of 417 days in the last 5 years of ProShares UltraShort Yen New, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (432 days)
- During the last 3 years, the maximum days under water is 204 days, which is smaller, thus better than the value of 432 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The average time in days below previous high water mark over 5 years of ProShares UltraShort Yen New is 143 days, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (105 days) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (145 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average days below previous high of 47 days is lower, thus better.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of ProShares UltraShort Yen New are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.