'Total return is the amount of value an investor earns from a security over a specific period, typically one year, when all distributions are reinvested. Total return is expressed as a percentage of the amount invested. For example, a total return of 20% means the security increased by 20% of its original value due to a price increase, distribution of dividends (if a stock), coupons (if a bond) or capital gains (if a fund). Total return is a strong measure of an investment’s overall performance.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (122.1%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return of 149.5% of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Discretionary is larger, thus better.
- Looking at total return, or performance in of 65.3% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to SPY (43.5%).

'The compound annual growth rate isn't a true return rate, but rather a representational figure. It is essentially a number that describes the rate at which an investment would have grown if it had grown the same rate every year and the profits were reinvested at the end of each year. In reality, this sort of performance is unlikely. However, CAGR can be used to smooth returns so that they may be more easily understood when compared to alternative investments.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The annual performance (CAGR) over 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Discretionary is 20.1%, which is greater, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (17.3%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the annual performance (CAGR) is 18.3%, which is greater, thus better than the value of 12.8% from the benchmark.

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the historical 30 days volatility of 19.8% in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Discretionary, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (18.8%)
- Compared with SPY (22.9%) in the period of the last 3 years, the historical 30 days volatility of 23.9% is greater, thus worse.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the downside deviation of 14.4% in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Discretionary, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (13.6%)
- During the last 3 years, the downside deviation is 17.5%, which is higher, thus worse than the value of 16.8% from the benchmark.

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the risk / return profile (Sharpe) of 0.89 in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Discretionary, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.79)
- Compared with SPY (0.45) in the period of the last 3 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) of 0.66 is greater, thus better.

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the downside risk / excess return profile of 1.22 in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Discretionary, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (1.09)
- Looking at downside risk / excess return profile in of 0.9 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to SPY (0.61).

'Ulcer Index is a method for measuring investment risk that addresses the real concerns of investors, unlike the widely used standard deviation of return. UI is a measure of the depth and duration of drawdowns in prices from earlier highs. Using Ulcer Index instead of standard deviation can lead to very different conclusions about investment risk and risk-adjusted return, especially when evaluating strategies that seek to avoid major declines in portfolio value (market timing, dynamic asset allocation, hedge funds, etc.). The Ulcer Index was originally developed in 1987. Since then, it has been widely recognized and adopted by the investment community. According to Nelson Freeburg, editor of Formula Research, Ulcer Index is “perhaps the most fully realized statistical portrait of risk there is.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the Ulcer Index of 5.78 in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Discretionary, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (5.59 )
- Compared with SPY (7.15 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Ulcer Ratio of 7.29 is larger, thus worse.

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the maximum DrawDown of -33.9 days in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Discretionary, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days)
- During the last 3 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley is -33.9 days, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of -33.7 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the maximum days below previous high of 133 days in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Discretionary, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (139 days)
- Compared with SPY (139 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum days under water of 133 days is lower, thus better.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the average time in days below previous high water mark of 29 days in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Discretionary, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (33 days)
- Compared with SPY (45 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average days under water of 37 days is smaller, thus better.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Discretionary are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.