'Total return is the amount of value an investor earns from a security over a specific period, typically one year, when all distributions are reinvested. Total return is expressed as a percentage of the amount invested. For example, a total return of 20% means the security increased by 20% of its original value due to a price increase, distribution of dividends (if a stock), coupons (if a bond) or capital gains (if a fund). Total return is a strong measure of an investmentâ€™s overall performance.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (74.4%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return of 95.1% of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Discretionary is larger, thus better.
- During the last 3 years, the total return is 63.4%, which is greater, thus better than the value of 34.2% from the benchmark.

'The compound annual growth rate isn't a true return rate, but rather a representational figure. It is essentially a number that describes the rate at which an investment would have grown if it had grown the same rate every year and the profits were reinvested at the end of each year. In reality, this sort of performance is unlikely. However, CAGR can be used to smooth returns so that they may be more easily understood when compared to alternative investments.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) over 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Discretionary is 14.3%, which is greater, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (11.8%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) is 17.8%, which is higher, thus better than the value of 10.3% from the benchmark.

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The volatility over 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Discretionary is 20%, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (18.9%) in the same period.
- Looking at historical 30 days volatility in of 23.7% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (22.6%).

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the downside risk of 14.6% in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Discretionary, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (13.8%)
- Looking at downside deviation in of 17.4% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (16.7%).

'The Sharpe ratio was developed by Nobel laureate William F. Sharpe, and is used to help investors understand the return of an investment compared to its risk. The ratio is the average return earned in excess of the risk-free rate per unit of volatility or total risk. Subtracting the risk-free rate from the mean return allows an investor to better isolate the profits associated with risk-taking activities. One intuition of this calculation is that a portfolio engaging in 'zero risk' investments, such as the purchase of U.S. Treasury bills (for which the expected return is the risk-free rate), has a Sharpe ratio of exactly zero. Generally, the greater the value of the Sharpe ratio, the more attractive the risk-adjusted return.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) over 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Discretionary is 0.59, which is larger, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (0.49) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (0.35) in the period of the last 3 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of 0.65 is higher, thus better.

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.67) in the period of the last 5 years, the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of 0.81 of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Discretionary is greater, thus better.
- During the last 3 years, the excess return divided by the downside deviation is 0.88, which is higher, thus better than the value of 0.47 from the benchmark.

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (5.82 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Ulcer Index of 6.12 of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Discretionary is greater, thus worse.
- Looking at Ulcer Index in of 7.27 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (7.13 ).

'Maximum drawdown is defined as the peak-to-trough decline of an investment during a specific period. It is usually quoted as a percentage of the peak value. The maximum drawdown can be calculated based on absolute returns, in order to identify strategies that suffer less during market downturns, such as low-volatility strategies. However, the maximum drawdown can also be calculated based on returns relative to a benchmark index, for identifying strategies that show steady outperformance over time.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum reduction from previous high of -33.9 days of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Discretionary is lower, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum reduction from previous high is -33.9 days, which is lower, thus worse than the value of -33.7 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 154 days in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Discretionary, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (139 days)
- During the last 3 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark is 133 days, which is lower, thus better than the value of 139 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The average days below previous high over 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Discretionary is 38 days, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (37 days) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (45 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark of 37 days is lower, thus better.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Discretionary are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.