'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the total return, or increase in value of 86.8% in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Health Care, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (81.9%)
- Looking at total return, or increase in value in of 54.3% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to SPY (46.1%).

'The compound annual growth rate isn't a true return rate, but rather a representational figure. It is essentially a number that describes the rate at which an investment would have grown if it had grown the same rate every year and the profits were reinvested at the end of each year. In reality, this sort of performance is unlikely. However, CAGR can be used to smooth returns so that they may be more easily understood when compared to alternative investments.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (12.7%) in the period of the last 5 years, the annual return (CAGR) of 13.3% of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Health Care is larger, thus better.
- During the last 3 years, the annual performance (CAGR) is 15.5%, which is higher, thus better than the value of 13.5% from the benchmark.

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The historical 30 days volatility over 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Health Care is 18.6%, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (19.8%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (23%) in the period of the last 3 years, the volatility of 20.8% is lower, thus better.

'Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The downside volatility over 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Health Care is 13.1%, which is smaller, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (14.5%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the downside volatility is 14.4%, which is lower, thus better than the value of 16.8% from the benchmark.

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the Sharpe Ratio of 0.58 in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Health Care, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.52)
- During the last 3 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) is 0.63, which is higher, thus better than the value of 0.48 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of 0.82 in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Health Care, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.7)
- Looking at excess return divided by the downside deviation in of 0.9 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to SPY (0.65).

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (6.08 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Ulcer Ratio of 5.16 of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Health Care is lower, thus better.
- During the last 3 years, the Ulcer Ratio is 4.8 , which is lower, thus better than the value of 6.77 from the benchmark.

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley of -28.4 days of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Health Care is higher, thus better.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum reduction from previous high is -28.4 days, which is greater, thus better than the value of -33.7 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 227 days in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Health Care, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (139 days)
- During the last 3 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark is 120 days, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 119 days from the benchmark.

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the average days under water of 48 days in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Health Care, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (35 days)
- During the last 3 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark is 29 days, which is greater, thus worse than the value of 27 days from the benchmark.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Health Care are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.