'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The total return over 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Health Care is 66.3%, which is larger, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (63%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the total return is 39%, which is greater, thus better than the value of 33.5% from the benchmark.

'The compound annual growth rate isn't a true return rate, but rather a representational figure. It is essentially a number that describes the rate at which an investment would have grown if it had grown the same rate every year and the profits were reinvested at the end of each year. In reality, this sort of performance is unlikely. However, CAGR can be used to smooth returns so that they may be more easily understood when compared to alternative investments.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) over 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Health Care is 10.7%, which is greater, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (10.3%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) is 11.6%, which is larger, thus better than the value of 10.1% from the benchmark.

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The historical 30 days volatility over 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Health Care is 19.5%, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (21.6%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (25.1%) in the period of the last 3 years, the historical 30 days volatility of 21.8% is smaller, thus better.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The downside volatility over 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Health Care is 13.8%, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (15.6%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (18.1%) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside deviation of 15.1% is lower, thus better.

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of 0.42 in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Health Care, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.36)
- During the last 3 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) is 0.42, which is larger, thus better than the value of 0.3 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The downside risk / excess return profile over 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Health Care is 0.6, which is larger, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (0.5) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (0.42) in the period of the last 3 years, the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of 0.6 is larger, thus better.

'Ulcer Index is a method for measuring investment risk that addresses the real concerns of investors, unlike the widely used standard deviation of return. UI is a measure of the depth and duration of drawdowns in prices from earlier highs. Using Ulcer Index instead of standard deviation can lead to very different conclusions about investment risk and risk-adjusted return, especially when evaluating strategies that seek to avoid major declines in portfolio value (market timing, dynamic asset allocation, hedge funds, etc.). The Ulcer Index was originally developed in 1987. Since then, it has been widely recognized and adopted by the investment community. According to Nelson Freeburg, editor of Formula Research, Ulcer Index is “perhaps the most fully realized statistical portrait of risk there is.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (8.88 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Ulcer Ratio of 5.63 of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Health Care is lower, thus better.
- Compared with SPY (11 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Downside risk index of 6.22 is lower, thus better.

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the maximum drop from peak to valley of -28.4 days in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Health Care, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days)
- Looking at maximum DrawDown in of -28.1 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to SPY (-33.7 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (273 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum days under water of 227 days of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Health Care is lower, thus better.
- Looking at maximum days below previous high in of 206 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to SPY (273 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (57 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark of 61 days of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Health Care is larger, thus worse.
- Looking at average days under water in of 47 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to SPY (73 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Health Care are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.