'Total return, when measuring performance, is the actual rate of return of an investment or a pool of investments over a given evaluation period. Total return includes interest, capital gains, dividends and distributions realized over a given period of time. Total return accounts for two categories of return: income including interest paid by fixed-income investments, distributions or dividends and capital appreciation, representing the change in the market price of an asset.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (58.9%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return, or increase in value of 52.2% of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Real Estate is smaller, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the total return, or increase in value is 15%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 33.9% from the benchmark.

'Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period. CAGR is not an accounting term, but it is often used to describe some element of the business, for example revenue, units delivered, registered users, etc. CAGR dampens the effect of volatility of periodic returns that can render arithmetic means irrelevant. It is particularly useful to compare growth rates from various data sets of common domain such as revenue growth of companies in the same industry.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the annual performance (CAGR) of 8.8% in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Real Estate, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (9.7%)
- During the last 3 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) is 4.8%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 10.2% from the benchmark.

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the volatility of 24.2% in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Real Estate, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (21.6%)
- Looking at volatility in of 28.9% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (25%).

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the downside volatility of 17.5% in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Real Estate, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (15.7%)
- Compared with SPY (18.1%) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside risk of 21% is larger, thus worse.

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.33) in the period of the last 5 years, the Sharpe Ratio of 0.26 of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Real Estate is smaller, thus worse.
- Looking at risk / return profile (Sharpe) in of 0.08 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.31).

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The excess return divided by the downside deviation over 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Real Estate is 0.36, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.46) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (0.43) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside risk / excess return profile of 0.11 is smaller, thus worse.

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (8.91 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Ulcer Index of 11 of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Real Estate is greater, thus worse.
- Looking at Ulcer Ratio in of 15 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (11 ).

'Maximum drawdown is defined as the peak-to-trough decline of an investment during a specific period. It is usually quoted as a percentage of the peak value. The maximum drawdown can be calculated based on absolute returns, in order to identify strategies that suffer less during market downturns, such as low-volatility strategies. However, the maximum drawdown can also be calculated based on returns relative to a benchmark index, for identifying strategies that show steady outperformance over time.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the maximum DrawDown of -38.8 days in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Real Estate, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days)
- Compared with SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum DrawDown of -38.8 days is lower, thus worse.

'The Maximum Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. It is the length of time the account was in the Max Drawdown. A Max Drawdown measures a retrenchment from when an equity curve reaches a new high. It’s the maximum an account lost during that retrenchment. This method is applied because a valley can’t be measured until a new high occurs. Once the new high is reached, the percentage change from the old high to the bottom of the largest trough is recorded.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (271 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum days below previous high of 280 days of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Real Estate is larger, thus worse.
- Looking at maximum time in days below previous high water mark in of 280 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (271 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (60 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark of 76 days of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Real Estate is higher, thus worse.
- Looking at average days below previous high in of 112 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (72 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Real Estate are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.