'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The total return over 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Staples is 43%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (67.9%) in the same period.
- Looking at total return in of 14.7% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (38.6%).

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (10.9%) in the period of the last 5 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.4% of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Staples is smaller, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the annual return (CAGR) is 4.7%, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 11.5% from the benchmark.

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the 30 days standard deviation of 16.2% in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Staples, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (18.7%)
- During the last 3 years, the historical 30 days volatility is 18.5%, which is lower, thus better than the value of 21.5% from the benchmark.

'Downside risk is the financial risk associated with losses. That is, it is the risk of the actual return being below the expected return, or the uncertainty about the magnitude of that difference. Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The downside volatility over 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Staples is 11.5%, which is smaller, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (13.6%) in the same period.
- Looking at downside deviation in of 13% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to SPY (15.7%).

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The risk / return profile (Sharpe) over 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Staples is 0.3, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.45) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (0.42) in the period of the last 3 years, the Sharpe Ratio of 0.12 is smaller, thus worse.

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of 0.43 in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Staples, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.62)
- Compared with SPY (0.57) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside risk / excess return profile of 0.17 is lower, thus worse.

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The Ulcer Index over 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Staples is 5.67 , which is smaller, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (5.82 ) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (6.87 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Downside risk index of 6.72 is lower, thus better.

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley of -24.5 days of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Staples is higher, thus better.
- Looking at maximum reduction from previous high in of -24.5 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to SPY (-33.7 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (187 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum days under water of 306 days of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Staples is higher, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark is 306 days, which is higher, thus worse than the value of 139 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (43 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark of 66 days of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Staples is greater, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (39 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark of 85 days is larger, thus worse.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Consumer Staples are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.