'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The total return, or increase in value over 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Technology is 167.2%, which is larger, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (94.9%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the total return, or increase in value is 30.7%, which is larger, thus better than the value of 22.5% from the benchmark.

'The compound annual growth rate isn't a true return rate, but rather a representational figure. It is essentially a number that describes the rate at which an investment would have grown if it had grown the same rate every year and the profits were reinvested at the end of each year. In reality, this sort of performance is unlikely. However, CAGR can be used to smooth returns so that they may be more easily understood when compared to alternative investments.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (14.3%) in the period of the last 5 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 21.8% of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Technology is higher, thus better.
- Looking at compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) in of 9.4% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to SPY (7%).

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the 30 days standard deviation of 27.6% in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Technology, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (20.9%)
- Looking at 30 days standard deviation in of 24.9% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (17.5%).

'Downside risk is the financial risk associated with losses. That is, it is the risk of the actual return being below the expected return, or the uncertainty about the magnitude of that difference. Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the downside deviation of 19.2% in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Technology, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (15%)
- Compared with SPY (12.3%) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside volatility of 17.2% is greater, thus worse.

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.56) in the period of the last 5 years, the Sharpe Ratio of 0.7 of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Technology is larger, thus better.
- During the last 3 years, the Sharpe Ratio is 0.28, which is larger, thus better than the value of 0.26 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the downside risk / excess return profile of 1 in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Technology, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.79)
- Looking at excess return divided by the downside deviation in of 0.4 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to SPY (0.37).

'Ulcer Index is a method for measuring investment risk that addresses the real concerns of investors, unlike the widely used standard deviation of return. UI is a measure of the depth and duration of drawdowns in prices from earlier highs. Using Ulcer Index instead of standard deviation can lead to very different conclusions about investment risk and risk-adjusted return, especially when evaluating strategies that seek to avoid major declines in portfolio value (market timing, dynamic asset allocation, hedge funds, etc.). The Ulcer Index was originally developed in 1987. Since then, it has been widely recognized and adopted by the investment community. According to Nelson Freeburg, editor of Formula Research, Ulcer Index is “perhaps the most fully realized statistical portrait of risk there is.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the Downside risk index of 12 in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Technology, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (9.32 )
- Compared with SPY (10 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Ulcer Index of 15 is larger, thus worse.

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the maximum DrawDown of -33.6 days in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Technology, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days)
- During the last 3 years, the maximum DrawDown is -33.6 days, which is lower, thus worse than the value of -24.5 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs). Many assume Max DD Duration is the length of time between new highs during which the Max DD (magnitude) occurred. But that isn’t always the case. The Max DD duration is the longest time between peaks, period. So it could be the time when the program also had its biggest peak to valley loss (and usually is, because the program needs a long time to recover from the largest loss), but it doesn’t have to be'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the maximum days under water of 368 days in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Technology, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (488 days)
- During the last 3 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark is 368 days, which is smaller, thus better than the value of 488 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The average days under water over 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Technology is 75 days, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (123 days) in the same period.
- Looking at average days below previous high in of 108 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to SPY (179 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
[Show Details]

- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Technology are hypothetical and do not account for slippage, fees or taxes.