'Total return is the amount of value an investor earns from a security over a specific period, typically one year, when all distributions are reinvested. Total return is expressed as a percentage of the amount invested. For example, a total return of 20% means the security increased by 20% of its original value due to a price increase, distribution of dividends (if a stock), coupons (if a bond) or capital gains (if a fund). Total return is a strong measure of an investment’s overall performance.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the total return, or performance of 43.4% in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Financial, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (67.9%)
- Compared with SPY (38.6%) in the period of the last 3 years, the total return, or increase in value of 17.8% is lower, thus worse.

'The compound annual growth rate isn't a true return rate, but rather a representational figure. It is essentially a number that describes the rate at which an investment would have grown if it had grown the same rate every year and the profits were reinvested at the end of each year. In reality, this sort of performance is unlikely. However, CAGR can be used to smooth returns so that they may be more easily understood when compared to alternative investments.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (10.9%) in the period of the last 5 years, the annual return (CAGR) of 7.5% of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Financial is lower, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (11.5%) in the period of the last 3 years, the annual performance (CAGR) of 5.6% is lower, thus worse.

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The historical 30 days volatility over 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Financial is 34.8%, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (18.7%) in the same period.
- Looking at volatility in of 27.9% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (21.5%).

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the downside risk of 22.4% in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Financial, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (13.6%)
- Looking at downside deviation in of 20.1% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (15.7%).

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) over 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Financial is 0.14, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.45) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (0.42) in the period of the last 3 years, the Sharpe Ratio of 0.11 is lower, thus worse.

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of 0.22 in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Financial, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.62)
- Looking at ratio of annual return and downside deviation in of 0.15 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.57).

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The Ulcer Ratio over 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Financial is 13 , which is higher, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (5.82 ) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the Downside risk index is 11 , which is greater, thus worse than the value of 6.87 from the benchmark.

'Maximum drawdown is defined as the peak-to-trough decline of an investment during a specific period. It is usually quoted as a percentage of the peak value. The maximum drawdown can be calculated based on absolute returns, in order to identify strategies that suffer less during market downturns, such as low-volatility strategies. However, the maximum drawdown can also be calculated based on returns relative to a benchmark index, for identifying strategies that show steady outperformance over time.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the maximum reduction from previous high of -43.3 days in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Financial, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days)
- Compared with SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum DrawDown of -43.3 days is lower, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (187 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 445 days of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Financial is larger, thus worse.
- Looking at maximum days below previous high in of 445 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (139 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the average days below previous high of 157 days in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Financial, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (43 days)
- Looking at average days under water in of 149 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (39 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Financial are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.