'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (61.3%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return of 33.9% of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Energy Select Sector is lower, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (31.6%) in the period of the last 3 years, the total return, or performance of 44.4% is greater, thus better.

'Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period. CAGR is not an accounting term, but it is often used to describe some element of the business, for example revenue, units delivered, registered users, etc. CAGR dampens the effect of volatility of periodic returns that can render arithmetic means irrelevant. It is particularly useful to compare growth rates from various data sets of common domain such as revenue growth of companies in the same industry.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (10%) in the period of the last 5 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6% of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Energy Select Sector is lower, thus worse.
- Looking at compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) in of 13% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to SPY (9.6%).

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the volatility of 35.8% in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Energy Select Sector, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (20.8%)
- During the last 3 years, the volatility is 43.2%, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 24% from the benchmark.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the downside volatility of 25.5% in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Energy Select Sector, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (15.3%)
- During the last 3 years, the downside volatility is 30.6%, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 17.6% from the benchmark.

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) over 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Energy Select Sector is 0.1, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.36) in the same period.
- Looking at Sharpe Ratio in of 0.24 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.3).

'The Sortino ratio measures the risk-adjusted return of an investment asset, portfolio, or strategy. It is a modification of the Sharpe ratio but penalizes only those returns falling below a user-specified target or required rate of return, while the Sharpe ratio penalizes both upside and downside volatility equally. Though both ratios measure an investment's risk-adjusted return, they do so in significantly different ways that will frequently lead to differing conclusions as to the true nature of the investment's return-generating efficiency. The Sortino ratio is used as a way to compare the risk-adjusted performance of programs with differing risk and return profiles. In general, risk-adjusted returns seek to normalize the risk across programs and then see which has the higher return unit per risk.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the excess return divided by the downside deviation of 0.14 in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Energy Select Sector, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.49)
- During the last 3 years, the downside risk / excess return profile is 0.34, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 0.4 from the benchmark.

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The Ulcer Ratio over 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Energy Select Sector is 26 , which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (7.61 ) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (8.93 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Ulcer Index of 24 is higher, thus worse.

'Maximum drawdown is defined as the peak-to-trough decline of an investment during a specific period. It is usually quoted as a percentage of the peak value. The maximum drawdown can be calculated based on absolute returns, in order to identify strategies that suffer less during market downturns, such as low-volatility strategies. However, the maximum drawdown can also be calculated based on returns relative to a benchmark index, for identifying strategies that show steady outperformance over time.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the maximum DrawDown of -67.1 days in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Energy Select Sector, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days)
- Looking at maximum drop from peak to valley in of -60.6 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (-33.7 days).

'The Maximum Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. It is the length of time the account was in the Max Drawdown. A Max Drawdown measures a retrenchment from when an equity curve reaches a new high. It’s the maximum an account lost during that retrenchment. This method is applied because a valley can’t be measured until a new high occurs. Once the new high is reached, the percentage change from the old high to the bottom of the largest trough is recorded.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the maximum days under water of 928 days in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Energy Select Sector, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (185 days)
- Compared with SPY (185 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 443 days is higher, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the average days under water of 363 days in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Energy Select Sector, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (46 days)
- Compared with SPY (44 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average days below previous high of 148 days is greater, thus worse.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Energy Select Sector are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.