'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The total return, or increase in value over 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Materials is 85.1%, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (111.3%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the total return is 25.6%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 39.3% from the benchmark.

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the annual return (CAGR) of 13.1% in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Materials, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (16.2%)
- Looking at annual performance (CAGR) in of 7.9% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (11.7%).

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (20.9%) in the period of the last 5 years, the volatility of 23.8% of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Materials is higher, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the historical 30 days volatility is 19.3%, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 17.5% from the benchmark.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the downside volatility of 16.8% in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Materials, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (14.9%)
- Looking at downside deviation in of 13.3% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (12.2%).

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The Sharpe Ratio over 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Materials is 0.45, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.66) in the same period.
- Looking at Sharpe Ratio in of 0.28 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.53).

'The Sortino ratio measures the risk-adjusted return of an investment asset, portfolio, or strategy. It is a modification of the Sharpe ratio but penalizes only those returns falling below a user-specified target or required rate of return, while the Sharpe ratio penalizes both upside and downside volatility equally. Though both ratios measure an investment's risk-adjusted return, they do so in significantly different ways that will frequently lead to differing conclusions as to the true nature of the investment's return-generating efficiency. The Sortino ratio is used as a way to compare the risk-adjusted performance of programs with differing risk and return profiles. In general, risk-adjusted returns seek to normalize the risk across programs and then see which has the higher return unit per risk.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.92) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside risk / excess return profile of 0.63 of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Materials is smaller, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (0.75) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside risk / excess return profile of 0.41 is lower, thus worse.

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The Ulcer Index over 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Materials is 8.81 , which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (9.32 ) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the Downside risk index is 9.12 , which is lower, thus better than the value of 10 from the benchmark.

'Maximum drawdown is defined as the peak-to-trough decline of an investment during a specific period. It is usually quoted as a percentage of the peak value. The maximum drawdown can be calculated based on absolute returns, in order to identify strategies that suffer less during market downturns, such as low-volatility strategies. However, the maximum drawdown can also be calculated based on returns relative to a benchmark index, for identifying strategies that show steady outperformance over time.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The maximum drop from peak to valley over 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Materials is -37.1 days, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the same period.
- Looking at maximum DrawDown in of -24.7 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (-24.5 days).

'The Maximum Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. It is the length of time the account was in the Max Drawdown. A Max Drawdown measures a retrenchment from when an equity curve reaches a new high. It’s the maximum an account lost during that retrenchment. This method is applied because a valley can’t be measured until a new high occurs. Once the new high is reached, the percentage change from the old high to the bottom of the largest trough is recorded.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the maximum days under water of 466 days in the last 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Materials, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (488 days)
- During the last 3 years, the maximum days below previous high is 466 days, which is lower, thus better than the value of 488 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The average time in days below previous high water mark over 5 years of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Materials is 117 days, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (124 days) in the same period.
- Looking at average days under water in of 163 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to SPY (179 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of SPDR Select Sector Fund - Materials are hypothetical and do not account for slippage, fees or taxes.