'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The total return, or performance over 5 years of Materials Select Sector SPDR is 27.4%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (66.2%) in the same period.
- Looking at total return, or performance in of 29.1% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (45.7%).

'Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period. CAGR is not an accounting term, but it is often used to describe some element of the business, for example revenue, units delivered, registered users, etc. CAGR dampens the effect of volatility of periodic returns that can render arithmetic means irrelevant. It is particularly useful to compare growth rates from various data sets of common domain such as revenue growth of companies in the same industry.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the annual performance (CAGR) of 5% in the last 5 years of Materials Select Sector SPDR, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (10.7%)
- Looking at compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) in of 8.9% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (13.4%).

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the volatility of 16.6% in the last 5 years of Materials Select Sector SPDR, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (13.3%)
- During the last 3 years, the historical 30 days volatility is 15.4%, which is greater, thus worse than the value of 12.5% from the benchmark.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (14.6%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside volatility of 17.7% of Materials Select Sector SPDR is larger, thus worse.
- Looking at downside volatility in of 16.7% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (14.1%).

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) over 5 years of Materials Select Sector SPDR is 0.15, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.62) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (0.87) in the period of the last 3 years, the Sharpe Ratio of 0.42 is smaller, thus worse.

'The Sortino ratio measures the risk-adjusted return of an investment asset, portfolio, or strategy. It is a modification of the Sharpe ratio but penalizes only those returns falling below a user-specified target or required rate of return, while the Sharpe ratio penalizes both upside and downside volatility equally. Though both ratios measure an investment's risk-adjusted return, they do so in significantly different ways that will frequently lead to differing conclusions as to the true nature of the investment's return-generating efficiency. The Sortino ratio is used as a way to compare the risk-adjusted performance of programs with differing risk and return profiles. In general, risk-adjusted returns seek to normalize the risk across programs and then see which has the higher return unit per risk.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the downside risk / excess return profile of 0.14 in the last 5 years of Materials Select Sector SPDR, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.56)
- Looking at excess return divided by the downside deviation in of 0.38 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.77).

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the Ulcer Ratio of 8.86 in the last 5 years of Materials Select Sector SPDR, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (3.96 )
- Looking at Downside risk index in of 7.32 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to SPY (4.01 ).

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the maximum reduction from previous high of -26.9 days in the last 5 years of Materials Select Sector SPDR, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-19.3 days)
- Compared with SPY (-19.3 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum DrawDown of -24.7 days is lower, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (187 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum days under water of 449 days of Materials Select Sector SPDR is greater, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (131 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 290 days is greater, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (39 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark of 129 days of Materials Select Sector SPDR is higher, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark is 71 days, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 34 days from the benchmark.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
[Show Details]

- "Year" returns in the table above are not equal to the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of Materials Select Sector SPDR are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.