'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The total return over 5 years of iShares S&P Global Timber & Forestry Index Fund is 6.4%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (60.6%) in the same period.
- Looking at total return, or increase in value in of 21.5% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (38%).

'The compound annual growth rate isn't a true return rate, but rather a representational figure. It is essentially a number that describes the rate at which an investment would have grown if it had grown the same rate every year and the profits were reinvested at the end of each year. In reality, this sort of performance is unlikely. However, CAGR can be used to smooth returns so that they may be more easily understood when compared to alternative investments.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the annual performance (CAGR) of 1.2% in the last 5 years of iShares S&P Global Timber & Forestry Index Fund, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (10%)
- Looking at compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) in of 6.7% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (11.3%).

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (21.5%) in the period of the last 5 years, the volatility of 26.1% of iShares S&P Global Timber & Forestry Index Fund is greater, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the 30 days standard deviation is 20.7%, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 17.9% from the benchmark.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the downside risk of 18.9% in the last 5 years of iShares S&P Global Timber & Forestry Index Fund, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (15.5%)
- Compared with SPY (12.5%) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside risk of 14.3% is greater, thus worse.

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.35) in the period of the last 5 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) of -0.05 of iShares S&P Global Timber & Forestry Index Fund is lower, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) is 0.2, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 0.49 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the excess return divided by the downside deviation of -0.07 in the last 5 years of iShares S&P Global Timber & Forestry Index Fund, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.48)
- Compared with SPY (0.71) in the period of the last 3 years, the excess return divided by the downside deviation of 0.29 is lower, thus worse.

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The Ulcer Index over 5 years of iShares S&P Global Timber & Forestry Index Fund is 18 , which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (9.55 ) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (10 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Ulcer Index of 15 is greater, thus worse.

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the maximum drop from peak to valley of -46.4 days in the last 5 years of iShares S&P Global Timber & Forestry Index Fund, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days)
- Looking at maximum drop from peak to valley in of -31.9 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (-24.5 days).

'The Maximum Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. It is the length of time the account was in the Max Drawdown. A Max Drawdown measures a retrenchment from when an equity curve reaches a new high. It’s the maximum an account lost during that retrenchment. This method is applied because a valley can’t be measured until a new high occurs. Once the new high is reached, the percentage change from the old high to the bottom of the largest trough is recorded.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the maximum days under water of 596 days in the last 5 years of iShares S&P Global Timber & Forestry Index Fund, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (431 days)
- During the last 3 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark is 596 days, which is greater, thus worse than the value of 431 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the average days under water of 270 days in the last 5 years of iShares S&P Global Timber & Forestry Index Fund, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (105 days)
- Looking at average days under water in of 253 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (144 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of iShares S&P Global Timber & Forestry Index Fund are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.