'Total return, when measuring performance, is the actual rate of return of an investment or a pool of investments over a given evaluation period. Total return includes interest, capital gains, dividends and distributions realized over a given period of time. Total return accounts for two categories of return: income including interest paid by fixed-income investments, distributions or dividends and capital appreciation, representing the change in the market price of an asset.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (67.7%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return, or increase in value of 14.2% of Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund is lower, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (37%) in the period of the last 3 years, the total return of 9% is lower, thus worse.

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The annual performance (CAGR) over 5 years of Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund is 2.7%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (10.9%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (11.1%) in the period of the last 3 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 2.9% is lower, thus worse.

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The volatility over 5 years of Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund is 3.3%, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (21.4%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (24.8%) in the period of the last 3 years, the 30 days standard deviation of 4% is smaller, thus better.

'Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (15.5%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside volatility of 2.2% of Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund is lower, thus better.
- Compared with SPY (17.9%) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside deviation of 2.8% is lower, thus better.

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the risk / return profile (Sharpe) of 0.06 in the last 5 years of Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.39)
- Compared with SPY (0.34) in the period of the last 3 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) of 0.11 is smaller, thus worse.

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The ratio of annual return and downside deviation over 5 years of Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund is 0.09, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.54) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the ratio of annual return and downside deviation is 0.15, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 0.48 from the benchmark.

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The Ulcer Ratio over 5 years of Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund is 1.3 , which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (8.47 ) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the Ulcer Index is 1.67 , which is smaller, thus better than the value of 10 from the benchmark.

'Maximum drawdown is defined as the peak-to-trough decline of an investment during a specific period. It is usually quoted as a percentage of the peak value. The maximum drawdown can be calculated based on absolute returns, in order to identify strategies that suffer less during market downturns, such as low-volatility strategies. However, the maximum drawdown can also be calculated based on returns relative to a benchmark index, for identifying strategies that show steady outperformance over time.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The maximum reduction from previous high over 5 years of Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund is -6.3 days, which is greater, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley is -6.3 days, which is greater, thus better than the value of -33.7 days from the benchmark.

'The Maximum Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. It is the length of time the account was in the Max Drawdown. A Max Drawdown measures a retrenchment from when an equity curve reaches a new high. It’s the maximum an account lost during that retrenchment. This method is applied because a valley can’t be measured until a new high occurs. Once the new high is reached, the percentage change from the old high to the bottom of the largest trough is recorded.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the maximum days below previous high of 184 days in the last 5 years of Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (231 days)
- Compared with SPY (231 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum days under water of 184 days is lower, thus better.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (54 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark of 32 days of Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund is lower, thus better.
- During the last 3 years, the average days under water is 39 days, which is lower, thus better than the value of 58 days from the benchmark.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.