'Total return is the amount of value an investor earns from a security over a specific period, typically one year, when all distributions are reinvested. Total return is expressed as a percentage of the amount invested. For example, a total return of 20% means the security increased by 20% of its original value due to a price increase, distribution of dividends (if a stock), coupons (if a bond) or capital gains (if a fund). Total return is a strong measure of an investment’s overall performance.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the total return, or performance of 4.9% in the last 5 years of Vanguard FTSE Pacific ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (61.9%)
- Looking at total return in of 43.6% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (79.4%).

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (10.1%) in the period of the last 5 years, the annual return (CAGR) of 1% of Vanguard FTSE Pacific ETF is lower, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the annual performance (CAGR) is 12.8%, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 21.5% from the benchmark.

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The historical 30 days volatility over 5 years of Vanguard FTSE Pacific ETF is 18.8%, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (21.5%) in the same period.
- Looking at 30 days standard deviation in of 18.6% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to SPY (21.2%).

'Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (15.5%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside risk of 13.8% of Vanguard FTSE Pacific ETF is smaller, thus better.
- Compared with SPY (14.1%) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside volatility of 12.3% is smaller, thus better.

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) over 5 years of Vanguard FTSE Pacific ETF is -0.08, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.36) in the same period.
- Looking at Sharpe Ratio in of 0.55 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.9).

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The ratio of annual return and downside deviation over 5 years of Vanguard FTSE Pacific ETF is -0.11, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.49) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the ratio of annual return and downside deviation is 0.84, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 1.35 from the benchmark.

'Ulcer Index is a method for measuring investment risk that addresses the real concerns of investors, unlike the widely used standard deviation of return. UI is a measure of the depth and duration of drawdowns in prices from earlier highs. Using Ulcer Index instead of standard deviation can lead to very different conclusions about investment risk and risk-adjusted return, especially when evaluating strategies that seek to avoid major declines in portfolio value (market timing, dynamic asset allocation, hedge funds, etc.). The Ulcer Index was originally developed in 1987. Since then, it has been widely recognized and adopted by the investment community. According to Nelson Freeburg, editor of Formula Research, Ulcer Index is “perhaps the most fully realized statistical portrait of risk there is.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the Ulcer Index of 12 in the last 5 years of Vanguard FTSE Pacific ETF, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (9.15 )
- During the last 3 years, the Ulcer Index is 13 , which is greater, thus worse than the value of 9.78 from the benchmark.

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the maximum reduction from previous high of -31.5 days in the last 5 years of Vanguard FTSE Pacific ETF, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days)
- Compared with SPY (-24.5 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum reduction from previous high of -31.1 days is lower, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs). Many assume Max DD Duration is the length of time between new highs during which the Max DD (magnitude) occurred. But that isn’t always the case. The Max DD duration is the longest time between peaks, period. So it could be the time when the program also had its biggest peak to valley loss (and usually is, because the program needs a long time to recover from the largest loss), but it doesn’t have to be'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (305 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum days under water of 418 days of Vanguard FTSE Pacific ETF is greater, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum days under water is 381 days, which is higher, thus worse than the value of 305 days from the benchmark.

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (65 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the average days below previous high of 154 days of Vanguard FTSE Pacific ETF is greater, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (80 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average days under water of 114 days is higher, thus worse.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of Vanguard FTSE Pacific ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.