'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (67.2%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return, or performance of -12.8% of VanEck Vectors Vietnam ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (50.7%) in the period of the last 3 years, the total return, or increase in value of 24.1% is smaller, thus worse.

'Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period. CAGR is not an accounting term, but it is often used to describe some element of the business, for example revenue, units delivered, registered users, etc. CAGR dampens the effect of volatility of periodic returns that can render arithmetic means irrelevant. It is particularly useful to compare growth rates from various data sets of common domain such as revenue growth of companies in the same industry.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the annual performance (CAGR) of -2.7% in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Vietnam ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (10.8%)
- Looking at compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) in of 7.5% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (14.7%).

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (13.5%) in the period of the last 5 years, the historical 30 days volatility of 20.8% of VanEck Vectors Vietnam ETF is larger, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the historical 30 days volatility is 19.1%, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 12.8% from the benchmark.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (14.8%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside volatility of 21.4% of VanEck Vectors Vietnam ETF is greater, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the downside risk is 20.1%, which is higher, thus worse than the value of 14.7% from the benchmark.

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The risk / return profile (Sharpe) over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Vietnam ETF is -0.25, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.62) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (0.95) in the period of the last 3 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) of 0.26 is lower, thus worse.

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the excess return divided by the downside deviation of -0.24 in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Vietnam ETF, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.56)
- During the last 3 years, the excess return divided by the downside deviation is 0.25, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 0.83 from the benchmark.

'Ulcer Index is a method for measuring investment risk that addresses the real concerns of investors, unlike the widely used standard deviation of return. UI is a measure of the depth and duration of drawdowns in prices from earlier highs. Using Ulcer Index instead of standard deviation can lead to very different conclusions about investment risk and risk-adjusted return, especially when evaluating strategies that seek to avoid major declines in portfolio value (market timing, dynamic asset allocation, hedge funds, etc.). The Ulcer Index was originally developed in 1987. Since then, it has been widely recognized and adopted by the investment community. According to Nelson Freeburg, editor of Formula Research, Ulcer Index is “perhaps the most fully realized statistical portrait of risk there is.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The Downside risk index over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Vietnam ETF is 22 , which is higher, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (3.99 ) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the Ulcer Ratio is 15 , which is higher, thus worse than the value of 4.09 from the benchmark.

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-19.3 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum reduction from previous high of -36 days of VanEck Vectors Vietnam ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (-19.3 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley of -28.9 days is lower, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The maximum days under water over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Vietnam ETF is 789 days, which is higher, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (187 days) in the same period.
- Looking at maximum days below previous high in of 412 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (139 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the average time in days below previous high water mark of 318 days in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Vietnam ETF, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (42 days)
- Looking at average days below previous high in of 129 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (36 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of VanEck Vectors Vietnam ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.