'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the total return, or increase in value of 25.5% in the last 5 years of Vanguard Financials ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (57.1%)
- During the last 3 years, the total return is 41.1%, which is larger, thus better than the value of 32% from the benchmark.

'Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period. CAGR is not an accounting term, but it is often used to describe some element of the business, for example revenue, units delivered, registered users, etc. CAGR dampens the effect of volatility of periodic returns that can render arithmetic means irrelevant. It is particularly useful to compare growth rates from various data sets of common domain such as revenue growth of companies in the same industry.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (9.5%) in the period of the last 5 years, the annual performance (CAGR) of 4.7% of Vanguard Financials ETF is smaller, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (9.7%) in the period of the last 3 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 12.2% is greater, thus better.

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (21.5%) in the period of the last 5 years, the historical 30 days volatility of 27.4% of Vanguard Financials ETF is larger, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the volatility is 21.7%, which is higher, thus worse than the value of 17.9% from the benchmark.

'Downside risk is the financial risk associated with losses. That is, it is the risk of the actual return being below the expected return, or the uncertainty about the magnitude of that difference. Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The downside volatility over 5 years of Vanguard Financials ETF is 19.5%, which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (15.5%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (12.5%) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside risk of 14.6% is larger, thus worse.

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The Sharpe Ratio over 5 years of Vanguard Financials ETF is 0.08, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.32) in the same period.
- Looking at risk / return profile (Sharpe) in of 0.45 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to SPY (0.41).

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The excess return divided by the downside deviation over 5 years of Vanguard Financials ETF is 0.11, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.45) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (0.58) in the period of the last 3 years, the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of 0.66 is greater, thus better.

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the Ulcer Index of 14 in the last 5 years of Vanguard Financials ETF, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (9.57 )
- During the last 3 years, the Ulcer Index is 13 , which is higher, thus worse than the value of 10 from the benchmark.

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley of -44.4 days of Vanguard Financials ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (-24.5 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum reduction from previous high of -25.7 days is lower, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 432 days in the last 5 years of Vanguard Financials ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (439 days)
- During the last 3 years, the maximum days below previous high is 432 days, which is lower, thus better than the value of 439 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The average time in days below previous high water mark over 5 years of Vanguard Financials ETF is 115 days, which is higher, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (106 days) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (149 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark of 142 days is lower, thus better.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of Vanguard Financials ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.