'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the total return, or performance of 25.9% in the last 5 years of Invesco DB USD Index Bullish Fund ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (62.7%)
- During the last 3 years, the total return is 12%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 34.7% from the benchmark.

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (10.2%) in the period of the last 5 years, the annual return (CAGR) of 4.7% of Invesco DB USD Index Bullish Fund ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (10.5%) in the period of the last 3 years, the annual performance (CAGR) of 3.9% is lower, thus worse.

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (20.9%) in the period of the last 5 years, the 30 days standard deviation of 6.7% of Invesco DB USD Index Bullish Fund ETF is lower, thus better.
- During the last 3 years, the 30 days standard deviation is 7.4%, which is smaller, thus better than the value of 24.1% from the benchmark.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the downside volatility of 4.4% in the last 5 years of Invesco DB USD Index Bullish Fund ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (15.3%)
- Looking at downside deviation in of 4.9% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to SPY (17.6%).

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of 0.33 in the last 5 years of Invesco DB USD Index Bullish Fund ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.37)
- Compared with SPY (0.33) in the period of the last 3 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of 0.18 is lower, thus worse.

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the downside risk / excess return profile of 0.5 in the last 5 years of Invesco DB USD Index Bullish Fund ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.51)
- Compared with SPY (0.45) in the period of the last 3 years, the excess return divided by the downside deviation of 0.28 is lower, thus worse.

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (7.71 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Ulcer Index of 6.71 of Invesco DB USD Index Bullish Fund ETF is lower, thus better.
- Compared with SPY (9.08 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Downside risk index of 8.5 is lower, thus better.

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the maximum drop from peak to valley of -14.2 days in the last 5 years of Invesco DB USD Index Bullish Fund ETF, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days)
- Compared with SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum DrawDown of -14.2 days is greater, thus better.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs). Many assume Max DD Duration is the length of time between new highs during which the Max DD (magnitude) occurred. But that isn’t always the case. The Max DD duration is the longest time between peaks, period. So it could be the time when the program also had its biggest peak to valley loss (and usually is, because the program needs a long time to recover from the largest loss), but it doesn’t have to be'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the maximum days under water of 562 days in the last 5 years of Invesco DB USD Index Bullish Fund ETF, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (189 days)
- During the last 3 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark is 562 days, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 189 days from the benchmark.

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the average days below previous high of 150 days in the last 5 years of Invesco DB USD Index Bullish Fund ETF, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (46 days)
- During the last 3 years, the average days under water is 223 days, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 45 days from the benchmark.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
[Show Details]

- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of Invesco DB USD Index Bullish Fund ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.