'Total return, when measuring performance, is the actual rate of return of an investment or a pool of investments over a given evaluation period. Total return includes interest, capital gains, dividends and distributions realized over a given period of time. Total return accounts for two categories of return: income including interest paid by fixed-income investments, distributions or dividends and capital appreciation, representing the change in the market price of an asset.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the total return, or performance of -1.6% in the last 5 years of Invesco DB USD Index Bullish Fund ETF, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (91.7%)
- Compared with SPY (47.9%) in the period of the last 3 years, the total return, or increase in value of 6% is lower, thus worse.

'Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period. CAGR is not an accounting term, but it is often used to describe some element of the business, for example revenue, units delivered, registered users, etc. CAGR dampens the effect of volatility of periodic returns that can render arithmetic means irrelevant. It is particularly useful to compare growth rates from various data sets of common domain such as revenue growth of companies in the same industry.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (13.9%) in the period of the last 5 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of -0.3% of Invesco DB USD Index Bullish Fund ETF is smaller, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) is 1.9%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 13.9% from the benchmark.

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the 30 days standard deviation of 6.9% in the last 5 years of Invesco DB USD Index Bullish Fund ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (19%)
- Looking at historical 30 days volatility in of 6.7% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to SPY (22.8%).

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (13.8%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside risk of 4.9% of Invesco DB USD Index Bullish Fund ETF is lower, thus better.
- During the last 3 years, the downside risk is 4.5%, which is lower, thus better than the value of 16.7% from the benchmark.

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the Sharpe Ratio of -0.41 in the last 5 years of Invesco DB USD Index Bullish Fund ETF, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.6)
- Compared with SPY (0.5) in the period of the last 3 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of -0.08 is lower, thus worse.

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the excess return divided by the downside deviation of -0.58 in the last 5 years of Invesco DB USD Index Bullish Fund ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.82)
- Compared with SPY (0.68) in the period of the last 3 years, the excess return divided by the downside deviation of -0.12 is lower, thus worse.

'Ulcer Index is a method for measuring investment risk that addresses the real concerns of investors, unlike the widely used standard deviation of return. UI is a measure of the depth and duration of drawdowns in prices from earlier highs. Using Ulcer Index instead of standard deviation can lead to very different conclusions about investment risk and risk-adjusted return, especially when evaluating strategies that seek to avoid major declines in portfolio value (market timing, dynamic asset allocation, hedge funds, etc.). The Ulcer Index was originally developed in 1987. Since then, it has been widely recognized and adopted by the investment community. According to Nelson Freeburg, editor of Formula Research, Ulcer Index is “perhaps the most fully realized statistical portrait of risk there is.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The Ulcer Index over 5 years of Invesco DB USD Index Bullish Fund ETF is 6.12 , which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (5.82 ) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the Ulcer Index is 4.28 , which is lower, thus better than the value of 7.14 from the benchmark.

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The maximum DrawDown over 5 years of Invesco DB USD Index Bullish Fund ETF is -13.3 days, which is higher, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum reduction from previous high is -11.9 days, which is greater, thus better than the value of -33.7 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (139 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum days below previous high of 606 days of Invesco DB USD Index Bullish Fund ETF is higher, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark is 176 days, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 139 days from the benchmark.

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The average days below previous high over 5 years of Invesco DB USD Index Bullish Fund ETF is 191 days, which is higher, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (36 days) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (45 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark of 42 days is lower, thus better.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of Invesco DB USD Index Bullish Fund ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.