'Total return is the amount of value an investor earns from a security over a specific period, typically one year, when all distributions are reinvested. Total return is expressed as a percentage of the amount invested. For example, a total return of 20% means the security increased by 20% of its original value due to a price increase, distribution of dividends (if a stock), coupons (if a bond) or capital gains (if a fund). Total return is a strong measure of an investment’s overall performance.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (60.6%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return, or performance of -43.3% of ProShares Ultra 20+ Year Treasury is lower, thus worse.
- Looking at total return in of -70.7% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (38%).

'Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period. CAGR is not an accounting term, but it is often used to describe some element of the business, for example revenue, units delivered, registered users, etc. CAGR dampens the effect of volatility of periodic returns that can render arithmetic means irrelevant. It is particularly useful to compare growth rates from various data sets of common domain such as revenue growth of companies in the same industry.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the annual return (CAGR) of -10.7% in the last 5 years of ProShares Ultra 20+ Year Treasury, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (10%)
- Looking at compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) in of -33.6% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (11.3%).

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (21.5%) in the period of the last 5 years, the volatility of 33.3% of ProShares Ultra 20+ Year Treasury is greater, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the historical 30 days volatility is 33.4%, which is greater, thus worse than the value of 17.9% from the benchmark.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (15.5%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside deviation of 23.5% of ProShares Ultra 20+ Year Treasury is greater, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the downside volatility is 24.4%, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 12.5% from the benchmark.

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the risk / return profile (Sharpe) of -0.4 in the last 5 years of ProShares Ultra 20+ Year Treasury, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.35)
- Looking at ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) in of -1.08 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.49).

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the downside risk / excess return profile of -0.56 in the last 5 years of ProShares Ultra 20+ Year Treasury, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.48)
- Compared with SPY (0.71) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside risk / excess return profile of -1.48 is smaller, thus worse.

'Ulcer Index is a method for measuring investment risk that addresses the real concerns of investors, unlike the widely used standard deviation of return. UI is a measure of the depth and duration of drawdowns in prices from earlier highs. Using Ulcer Index instead of standard deviation can lead to very different conclusions about investment risk and risk-adjusted return, especially when evaluating strategies that seek to avoid major declines in portfolio value (market timing, dynamic asset allocation, hedge funds, etc.). The Ulcer Index was originally developed in 1987. Since then, it has been widely recognized and adopted by the investment community. According to Nelson Freeburg, editor of Formula Research, Ulcer Index is “perhaps the most fully realized statistical portrait of risk there is.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (9.55 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Downside risk index of 40 of ProShares Ultra 20+ Year Treasury is larger, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the Downside risk index is 45 , which is higher, thus worse than the value of 10 from the benchmark.

'Maximum drawdown is defined as the peak-to-trough decline of an investment during a specific period. It is usually quoted as a percentage of the peak value. The maximum drawdown can be calculated based on absolute returns, in order to identify strategies that suffer less during market downturns, such as low-volatility strategies. However, the maximum drawdown can also be calculated based on returns relative to a benchmark index, for identifying strategies that show steady outperformance over time.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum DrawDown of -74.6 days of ProShares Ultra 20+ Year Treasury is smaller, thus worse.
- Looking at maximum DrawDown in of -70.9 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (-24.5 days).

'The Maximum Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. It is the length of time the account was in the Max Drawdown. A Max Drawdown measures a retrenchment from when an equity curve reaches a new high. It’s the maximum an account lost during that retrenchment. This method is applied because a valley can’t be measured until a new high occurs. Once the new high is reached, the percentage change from the old high to the bottom of the largest trough is recorded.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 891 days in the last 5 years of ProShares Ultra 20+ Year Treasury, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (431 days)
- Compared with SPY (431 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 751 days is larger, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (105 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the average days below previous high of 338 days of ProShares Ultra 20+ Year Treasury is greater, thus worse.
- Looking at average days below previous high in of 376 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (144 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of ProShares Ultra 20+ Year Treasury are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.