'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the total return of 90.2% in the last 5 years of ProShares UltraPro QQQ, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (63%)
- Compared with SPY (33.5%) in the period of the last 3 years, the total return of 4.8% is lower, thus worse.

'Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period. CAGR is not an accounting term, but it is often used to describe some element of the business, for example revenue, units delivered, registered users, etc. CAGR dampens the effect of volatility of periodic returns that can render arithmetic means irrelevant. It is particularly useful to compare growth rates from various data sets of common domain such as revenue growth of companies in the same industry.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the annual performance (CAGR) of 13.7% in the last 5 years of ProShares UltraPro QQQ, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (10.3%)
- Compared with SPY (10.1%) in the period of the last 3 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 1.6% is lower, thus worse.

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The volatility over 5 years of ProShares UltraPro QQQ is 77.8%, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (21.6%) in the same period.
- Looking at volatility in of 88.2% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (25.1%).

'Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (15.6%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside deviation of 56% of ProShares UltraPro QQQ is larger, thus worse.
- Looking at downside volatility in of 63.4% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (18.1%).

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The risk / return profile (Sharpe) over 5 years of ProShares UltraPro QQQ is 0.14, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.36) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (0.3) in the period of the last 3 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of -0.01 is smaller, thus worse.

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.5) in the period of the last 5 years, the excess return divided by the downside deviation of 0.2 of ProShares UltraPro QQQ is lower, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the downside risk / excess return profile is -0.01, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 0.42 from the benchmark.

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (8.88 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Ulcer Index of 35 of ProShares UltraPro QQQ is greater, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (11 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Downside risk index of 42 is larger, thus worse.

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley of -81.7 days of ProShares UltraPro QQQ is smaller, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley is -81.7 days, which is lower, thus worse than the value of -33.7 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs). Many assume Max DD Duration is the length of time between new highs during which the Max DD (magnitude) occurred. But that isn’t always the case. The Max DD duration is the longest time between peaks, period. So it could be the time when the program also had its biggest peak to valley loss (and usually is, because the program needs a long time to recover from the largest loss), but it doesn’t have to be'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The maximum days under water over 5 years of ProShares UltraPro QQQ is 302 days, which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (273 days) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum days below previous high is 302 days, which is greater, thus worse than the value of 273 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The average days below previous high over 5 years of ProShares UltraPro QQQ is 90 days, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (57 days) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (73 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average days below previous high of 82 days is larger, thus worse.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
[Show Details]

- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of ProShares UltraPro QQQ are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.