'Total return is the amount of value an investor earns from a security over a specific period, typically one year, when all distributions are reinvested. Total return is expressed as a percentage of the amount invested. For example, a total return of 20% means the security increased by 20% of its original value due to a price increase, distribution of dividends (if a stock), coupons (if a bond) or capital gains (if a fund). Total return is a strong measure of an investment’s overall performance.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (62.6%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return of 49.9% of Invesco S&P 500 Low Volatility ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (32.1%) in the period of the last 3 years, the total return, or performance of 20% is smaller, thus worse.

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the annual performance (CAGR) of 8.5% in the last 5 years of Invesco S&P 500 Low Volatility ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (10.2%)
- During the last 3 years, the annual performance (CAGR) is 6.2%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 9.7% from the benchmark.

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the 30 days standard deviation of 19.1% in the last 5 years of Invesco S&P 500 Low Volatility ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (21.5%)
- Looking at historical 30 days volatility in of 22.8% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to SPY (24.8%).

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The downside deviation over 5 years of Invesco S&P 500 Low Volatility ETF is 13.9%, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (15.6%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (17.9%) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside volatility of 16.6% is lower, thus better.

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The Sharpe Ratio over 5 years of Invesco S&P 500 Low Volatility ETF is 0.31, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.36) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (0.29) in the period of the last 3 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) of 0.16 is smaller, thus worse.

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The ratio of annual return and downside deviation over 5 years of Invesco S&P 500 Low Volatility ETF is 0.43, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.5) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the ratio of annual return and downside deviation is 0.23, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 0.4 from the benchmark.

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the Ulcer Ratio of 7.97 in the last 5 years of Invesco S&P 500 Low Volatility ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (8.52 )
- During the last 3 years, the Ulcer Ratio is 9.99 , which is smaller, thus better than the value of 10 from the benchmark.

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum reduction from previous high of -36.3 days of Invesco S&P 500 Low Volatility ETF is smaller, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum reduction from previous high of -36.3 days is lower, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The maximum days under water over 5 years of Invesco S&P 500 Low Volatility ETF is 296 days, which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (235 days) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (235 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 296 days is larger, thus worse.

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The average time in days below previous high water mark over 5 years of Invesco S&P 500 Low Volatility ETF is 66 days, which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (55 days) in the same period.
- Looking at average days under water in of 88 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (59 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of Invesco S&P 500 Low Volatility ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.