'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the total return, or performance of -85.8% in the last 5 years of ProShares UltraShort Basic Materials, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (98.3%)
- During the last 3 years, the total return, or increase in value is -42.7%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 27.2% from the benchmark.

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the annual return (CAGR) of -32.3% in the last 5 years of ProShares UltraShort Basic Materials, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (14.7%)
- During the last 3 years, the annual return (CAGR) is -17%, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 8.4% from the benchmark.

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The historical 30 days volatility over 5 years of ProShares UltraShort Basic Materials is 49.8%, which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (20.9%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the historical 30 days volatility is 40.9%, which is higher, thus worse than the value of 17.7% from the benchmark.

'Downside risk is the financial risk associated with losses. That is, it is the risk of the actual return being below the expected return, or the uncertainty about the magnitude of that difference. Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the downside risk of 35.1% in the last 5 years of ProShares UltraShort Basic Materials, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (14.9%)
- During the last 3 years, the downside risk is 28.8%, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 12.4% from the benchmark.

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the Sharpe Ratio of -0.7 in the last 5 years of ProShares UltraShort Basic Materials, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.58)
- Compared with SPY (0.33) in the period of the last 3 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of -0.48 is lower, thus worse.

'The Sortino ratio measures the risk-adjusted return of an investment asset, portfolio, or strategy. It is a modification of the Sharpe ratio but penalizes only those returns falling below a user-specified target or required rate of return, while the Sharpe ratio penalizes both upside and downside volatility equally. Though both ratios measure an investment's risk-adjusted return, they do so in significantly different ways that will frequently lead to differing conclusions as to the true nature of the investment's return-generating efficiency. The Sortino ratio is used as a way to compare the risk-adjusted performance of programs with differing risk and return profiles. In general, risk-adjusted returns seek to normalize the risk across programs and then see which has the higher return unit per risk.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of -0.99 in the last 5 years of ProShares UltraShort Basic Materials, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.82)
- Compared with SPY (0.47) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside risk / excess return profile of -0.68 is lower, thus worse.

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the Ulcer Index of 81 in the last 5 years of ProShares UltraShort Basic Materials, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (9.32 )
- During the last 3 years, the Downside risk index is 36 , which is higher, thus worse than the value of 10 from the benchmark.

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the maximum DrawDown of -92.9 days in the last 5 years of ProShares UltraShort Basic Materials, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days)
- Looking at maximum drop from peak to valley in of -54.1 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (-24.5 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs). Many assume Max DD Duration is the length of time between new highs during which the Max DD (magnitude) occurred. But that isn’t always the case. The Max DD duration is the longest time between peaks, period. So it could be the time when the program also had its biggest peak to valley loss (and usually is, because the program needs a long time to recover from the largest loss), but it doesn’t have to be'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (488 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum days under water of 1123 days of ProShares UltraShort Basic Materials is higher, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (488 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum days below previous high of 490 days is greater, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the average days below previous high of 510 days in the last 5 years of ProShares UltraShort Basic Materials, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (123 days)
- During the last 3 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark is 205 days, which is greater, thus worse than the value of 177 days from the benchmark.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
[Show Details]

- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of ProShares UltraShort Basic Materials are hypothetical and do not account for slippage, fees or taxes.