'Total return, when measuring performance, is the actual rate of return of an investment or a pool of investments over a given evaluation period. Total return includes interest, capital gains, dividends and distributions realized over a given period of time. Total return accounts for two categories of return: income including interest paid by fixed-income investments, distributions or dividends and capital appreciation, representing the change in the market price of an asset.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The total return, or performance over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Steel ETF is 122.6%, which is larger, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (98.3%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the total return, or performance is 18.5%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 27.2% from the benchmark.

'The compound annual growth rate isn't a true return rate, but rather a representational figure. It is essentially a number that describes the rate at which an investment would have grown if it had grown the same rate every year and the profits were reinvested at the end of each year. In reality, this sort of performance is unlikely. However, CAGR can be used to smooth returns so that they may be more easily understood when compared to alternative investments.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the annual performance (CAGR) of 17.4% in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Steel ETF, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (14.7%)
- During the last 3 years, the annual return (CAGR) is 5.9%, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 8.4% from the benchmark.

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the 30 days standard deviation of 34.3% in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Steel ETF, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (20.9%)
- Compared with SPY (17.7%) in the period of the last 3 years, the volatility of 28.4% is greater, thus worse.

'Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the downside deviation of 24.2% in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Steel ETF, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (14.9%)
- Compared with SPY (12.4%) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside volatility of 19.9% is higher, thus worse.

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.58) in the period of the last 5 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) of 0.43 of VanEck Vectors Steel ETF is smaller, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the Sharpe Ratio is 0.12, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 0.33 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The downside risk / excess return profile over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Steel ETF is 0.61, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.82) in the same period.
- Looking at ratio of annual return and downside deviation in of 0.17 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.47).

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (9.32 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Downside risk index of 16 of VanEck Vectors Steel ETF is greater, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the Ulcer Index is 13 , which is higher, thus worse than the value of 10 from the benchmark.

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum DrawDown of -52.5 days of VanEck Vectors Steel ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (-24.5 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum reduction from previous high of -33.6 days is lower, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs). Many assume Max DD Duration is the length of time between new highs during which the Max DD (magnitude) occurred. But that isn’t always the case. The Max DD duration is the longest time between peaks, period. So it could be the time when the program also had its biggest peak to valley loss (and usually is, because the program needs a long time to recover from the largest loss), but it doesn’t have to be'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the maximum days below previous high of 225 days in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Steel ETF, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (488 days)
- During the last 3 years, the maximum days below previous high is 193 days, which is smaller, thus better than the value of 488 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the average days under water of 69 days in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Steel ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (123 days)
- Compared with SPY (177 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark of 65 days is lower, thus better.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of VanEck Vectors Steel ETF are hypothetical and do not account for slippage, fees or taxes.