'Total return, when measuring performance, is the actual rate of return of an investment or a pool of investments over a given evaluation period. Total return includes interest, capital gains, dividends and distributions realized over a given period of time. Total return accounts for two categories of return: income including interest paid by fixed-income investments, distributions or dividends and capital appreciation, representing the change in the market price of an asset.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The total return, or increase in value over 5 years of iShares MSCI Global Silver Miners Fund is 17.7%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (67.7%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the total return, or increase in value is 15.9%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 37% from the benchmark.

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (10.9%) in the period of the last 5 years, the annual return (CAGR) of 3.3% of iShares MSCI Global Silver Miners Fund is lower, thus worse.
- Looking at annual return (CAGR) in of 5% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (11.1%).

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (21.4%) in the period of the last 5 years, the historical 30 days volatility of 42.9% of iShares MSCI Global Silver Miners Fund is larger, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the volatility is 50.8%, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 24.8% from the benchmark.

'Downside risk is the financial risk associated with losses. That is, it is the risk of the actual return being below the expected return, or the uncertainty about the magnitude of that difference. Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (15.5%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside volatility of 29.7% of iShares MSCI Global Silver Miners Fund is higher, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (17.9%) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside deviation of 35.1% is larger, thus worse.

'The Sharpe ratio was developed by Nobel laureate William F. Sharpe, and is used to help investors understand the return of an investment compared to its risk. The ratio is the average return earned in excess of the risk-free rate per unit of volatility or total risk. Subtracting the risk-free rate from the mean return allows an investor to better isolate the profits associated with risk-taking activities. One intuition of this calculation is that a portfolio engaging in 'zero risk' investments, such as the purchase of U.S. Treasury bills (for which the expected return is the risk-free rate), has a Sharpe ratio of exactly zero. Generally, the greater the value of the Sharpe ratio, the more attractive the risk-adjusted return.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.39) in the period of the last 5 years, the Sharpe Ratio of 0.02 of iShares MSCI Global Silver Miners Fund is lower, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (0.34) in the period of the last 3 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) of 0.05 is lower, thus worse.

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The ratio of annual return and downside deviation over 5 years of iShares MSCI Global Silver Miners Fund is 0.03, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.54) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the downside risk / excess return profile is 0.07, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 0.48 from the benchmark.

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (8.47 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Ulcer Index of 23 of iShares MSCI Global Silver Miners Fund is greater, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (10 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Downside risk index of 26 is greater, thus worse.

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum DrawDown of -56.2 days of iShares MSCI Global Silver Miners Fund is lower, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum reduction from previous high is -56.2 days, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of -33.7 days from the benchmark.

'The Maximum Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. It is the length of time the account was in the Max Drawdown. A Max Drawdown measures a retrenchment from when an equity curve reaches a new high. It’s the maximum an account lost during that retrenchment. This method is applied because a valley can’t be measured until a new high occurs. Once the new high is reached, the percentage change from the old high to the bottom of the largest trough is recorded.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the maximum days under water of 481 days in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Global Silver Miners Fund, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (231 days)
- Looking at maximum days below previous high in of 481 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (231 days).

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the average days below previous high of 170 days in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Global Silver Miners Fund, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (54 days)
- During the last 3 years, the average days under water is 170 days, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 58 days from the benchmark.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of iShares MSCI Global Silver Miners Fund are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.