'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The total return, or performance over 5 years of iShares 1-3 Year Treasury Bond ETF is 2.1%, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (60.7%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (29.5%) in the period of the last 3 years, the total return of -1.8% is lower, thus worse.

'Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period. CAGR is not an accounting term, but it is often used to describe some element of the business, for example revenue, units delivered, registered users, etc. CAGR dampens the effect of volatility of periodic returns that can render arithmetic means irrelevant. It is particularly useful to compare growth rates from various data sets of common domain such as revenue growth of companies in the same industry.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) over 5 years of iShares 1-3 Year Treasury Bond ETF is 0.4%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (10%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (9%) in the period of the last 3 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of -0.6% is lower, thus worse.

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (20.8%) in the period of the last 5 years, the 30 days standard deviation of 1.3% of iShares 1-3 Year Treasury Bond ETF is smaller, thus better.
- Compared with SPY (24%) in the period of the last 3 years, the volatility of 1.4% is smaller, thus better.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the downside deviation of 0.9% in the last 5 years of iShares 1-3 Year Treasury Bond ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (15.3%)
- Looking at downside deviation in of 1.1% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to SPY (17.6%).

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The Sharpe Ratio over 5 years of iShares 1-3 Year Treasury Bond ETF is -1.6, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.36) in the same period.
- Looking at Sharpe Ratio in of -2.15 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.27).

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The downside risk / excess return profile over 5 years of iShares 1-3 Year Treasury Bond ETF is -2.28, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.49) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the excess return divided by the downside deviation is -2.91, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 0.37 from the benchmark.

'Ulcer Index is a method for measuring investment risk that addresses the real concerns of investors, unlike the widely used standard deviation of return. UI is a measure of the depth and duration of drawdowns in prices from earlier highs. Using Ulcer Index instead of standard deviation can lead to very different conclusions about investment risk and risk-adjusted return, especially when evaluating strategies that seek to avoid major declines in portfolio value (market timing, dynamic asset allocation, hedge funds, etc.). The Ulcer Index was originally developed in 1987. Since then, it has been widely recognized and adopted by the investment community. According to Nelson Freeburg, editor of Formula Research, Ulcer Index is “perhaps the most fully realized statistical portrait of risk there is.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The Ulcer Index over 5 years of iShares 1-3 Year Treasury Bond ETF is 1.32 , which is smaller, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (7.52 ) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the Ulcer Index is 1.65 , which is lower, thus better than the value of 8.81 from the benchmark.

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the maximum reduction from previous high of -5.3 days in the last 5 years of iShares 1-3 Year Treasury Bond ETF, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days)
- Compared with SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum reduction from previous high of -5.3 days is higher, thus better.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the maximum days below previous high of 288 days in the last 5 years of iShares 1-3 Year Treasury Bond ETF, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (182 days)
- Looking at maximum time in days below previous high water mark in of 288 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (182 days).

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the average time in days below previous high water mark of 86 days in the last 5 years of iShares 1-3 Year Treasury Bond ETF, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (45 days)
- Looking at average days under water in of 81 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (43 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of iShares 1-3 Year Treasury Bond ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.