'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The total return, or increase in value over 5 years of ProShares UltraShort Consumer Services is -73.3%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (67.8%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (44.5%) in the period of the last 3 years, the total return, or increase in value of -49.3% is smaller, thus worse.

'Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period. CAGR is not an accounting term, but it is often used to describe some element of the business, for example revenue, units delivered, registered users, etc. CAGR dampens the effect of volatility of periodic returns that can render arithmetic means irrelevant. It is particularly useful to compare growth rates from various data sets of common domain such as revenue growth of companies in the same industry.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The annual performance (CAGR) over 5 years of ProShares UltraShort Consumer Services is -23.2%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (10.9%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) is -20.3%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 13.1% from the benchmark.

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (21.4%) in the period of the last 5 years, the historical 30 days volatility of 43.6% of ProShares UltraShort Consumer Services is greater, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the volatility is 44.1%, which is higher, thus worse than the value of 18.8% from the benchmark.

'Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The downside deviation over 5 years of ProShares UltraShort Consumer Services is 29.7%, which is higher, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (15.4%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (13.3%) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside volatility of 30.2% is higher, thus worse.

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The Sharpe Ratio over 5 years of ProShares UltraShort Consumer Services is -0.59, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.39) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the Sharpe Ratio is -0.52, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 0.56 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.55) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside risk / excess return profile of -0.87 of ProShares UltraShort Consumer Services is lower, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (0.79) in the period of the last 3 years, the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of -0.75 is lower, thus worse.

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the Ulcer Index of 62 in the last 5 years of ProShares UltraShort Consumer Services, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (9.46 )
- Looking at Ulcer Index in of 45 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (10 ).

'Maximum drawdown is defined as the peak-to-trough decline of an investment during a specific period. It is usually quoted as a percentage of the peak value. The maximum drawdown can be calculated based on absolute returns, in order to identify strategies that suffer less during market downturns, such as low-volatility strategies. However, the maximum drawdown can also be calculated based on returns relative to a benchmark index, for identifying strategies that show steady outperformance over time.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum DrawDown of -83.2 days of ProShares UltraShort Consumer Services is smaller, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley is -61.9 days, which is lower, thus worse than the value of -24.5 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The maximum days below previous high over 5 years of ProShares UltraShort Consumer Services is 1114 days, which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (352 days) in the same period.
- Looking at maximum time in days below previous high water mark in of 755 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (352 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the average days below previous high of 504 days in the last 5 years of ProShares UltraShort Consumer Services, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (78 days)
- Compared with SPY (102 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average days below previous high of 378 days is greater, thus worse.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of ProShares UltraShort Consumer Services are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.