'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the total return, or performance of % in the last 5 years of Invesco Alerian Galaxy Crypto Economy ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (57.1%)
- Compared with SPY (32%) in the period of the last 3 years, the total return of % is lower, thus worse.

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (9.5%) in the period of the last 5 years, the annual return (CAGR) of % of Invesco Alerian Galaxy Crypto Economy ETF is smaller, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) is %, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 9.7% from the benchmark.

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (21.5%) in the period of the last 5 years, the 30 days standard deviation of % of Invesco Alerian Galaxy Crypto Economy ETF is lower, thus better.
- During the last 3 years, the 30 days standard deviation is %, which is lower, thus better than the value of 17.9% from the benchmark.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The downside deviation over 5 years of Invesco Alerian Galaxy Crypto Economy ETF is %, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (15.5%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the downside deviation is %, which is smaller, thus better than the value of 12.5% from the benchmark.

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the Sharpe Ratio of in the last 5 years of Invesco Alerian Galaxy Crypto Economy ETF, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.32)
- Compared with SPY (0.41) in the period of the last 3 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) of is lower, thus worse.

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.45) in the period of the last 5 years, the excess return divided by the downside deviation of of Invesco Alerian Galaxy Crypto Economy ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (0.58) in the period of the last 3 years, the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of is smaller, thus worse.

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (9.57 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Ulcer Index of of Invesco Alerian Galaxy Crypto Economy ETF is lower, thus better.
- Looking at Downside risk index in of in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to SPY (10 ).

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the maximum reduction from previous high of days in the last 5 years of Invesco Alerian Galaxy Crypto Economy ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days)
- Looking at maximum reduction from previous high in of days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (-24.5 days).

'The Maximum Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. It is the length of time the account was in the Max Drawdown. A Max Drawdown measures a retrenchment from when an equity curve reaches a new high. It’s the maximum an account lost during that retrenchment. This method is applied because a valley can’t be measured until a new high occurs. Once the new high is reached, the percentage change from the old high to the bottom of the largest trough is recorded.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The maximum days below previous high over 5 years of Invesco Alerian Galaxy Crypto Economy ETF is days, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (439 days) in the same period.
- Looking at maximum days under water in of days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to SPY (439 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The average days under water over 5 years of Invesco Alerian Galaxy Crypto Economy ETF is days, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (106 days) in the same period.
- Looking at average days under water in of days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to SPY (149 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of Invesco Alerian Galaxy Crypto Economy ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.