'Total return is the amount of value an investor earns from a security over a specific period, typically one year, when all distributions are reinvested. Total return is expressed as a percentage of the amount invested. For example, a total return of 20% means the security increased by 20% of its original value due to a price increase, distribution of dividends (if a stock), coupons (if a bond) or capital gains (if a fund). Total return is a strong measure of an investmentâ€™s overall performance.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the total return, or performance of 48.6% in the last 5 years of iShares Global Consumer Discretionary ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (66.2%)
- Looking at total return, or performance in of 35.5% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (45.7%).

'Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period. CAGR is not an accounting term, but it is often used to describe some element of the business, for example revenue, units delivered, registered users, etc. CAGR dampens the effect of volatility of periodic returns that can render arithmetic means irrelevant. It is particularly useful to compare growth rates from various data sets of common domain such as revenue growth of companies in the same industry.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 8.3% in the last 5 years of iShares Global Consumer Discretionary ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (10.7%)
- Compared with SPY (13.4%) in the period of the last 3 years, the annual performance (CAGR) of 10.7% is lower, thus worse.

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The 30 days standard deviation over 5 years of iShares Global Consumer Discretionary ETF is 14.2%, which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (13.3%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (12.5%) in the period of the last 3 years, the volatility of 13.5% is higher, thus worse.

'Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (14.6%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside volatility of 15.8% of iShares Global Consumer Discretionary ETF is greater, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (14.1%) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside volatility of 15.2% is larger, thus worse.

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The Sharpe Ratio over 5 years of iShares Global Consumer Discretionary ETF is 0.4, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.62) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (0.87) in the period of the last 3 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of 0.61 is lower, thus worse.

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the excess return divided by the downside deviation of 0.36 in the last 5 years of iShares Global Consumer Discretionary ETF, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.56)
- Looking at ratio of annual return and downside deviation in of 0.54 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.77).

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The Downside risk index over 5 years of iShares Global Consumer Discretionary ETF is 5.16 , which is larger, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (3.96 ) in the same period.
- Looking at Ulcer Index in of 4.77 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to SPY (4.01 ).

'Maximum drawdown is defined as the peak-to-trough decline of an investment during a specific period. It is usually quoted as a percentage of the peak value. The maximum drawdown can be calculated based on absolute returns, in order to identify strategies that suffer less during market downturns, such as low-volatility strategies. However, the maximum drawdown can also be calculated based on returns relative to a benchmark index, for identifying strategies that show steady outperformance over time.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the maximum drop from peak to valley of -20.9 days in the last 5 years of iShares Global Consumer Discretionary ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-19.3 days)
- During the last 3 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley is -20.9 days, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of -19.3 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the maximum days under water of 368 days in the last 5 years of iShares Global Consumer Discretionary ETF, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (187 days)
- Compared with SPY (131 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum days below previous high of 146 days is greater, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (39 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the average days under water of 86 days of iShares Global Consumer Discretionary ETF is larger, thus worse.
- Looking at average days under water in of 42 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (34 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- "Year" returns in the table above are not equal to the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of iShares Global Consumer Discretionary ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.