'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the total return of -17.3% in the last 5 years of SPDR DJ Wilshire Intl Real Estate, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (68.1%)
- During the last 3 years, the total return, or performance is 1.5%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 47% from the benchmark.

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the annual performance (CAGR) of -3.7% in the last 5 years of SPDR DJ Wilshire Intl Real Estate, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (11%)
- Compared with SPY (13.7%) in the period of the last 3 years, the annual performance (CAGR) of 0.5% is lower, thus worse.

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (21.4%) in the period of the last 5 years, the volatility of 18.8% of SPDR DJ Wilshire Intl Real Estate is lower, thus better.
- Compared with SPY (18.7%) in the period of the last 3 years, the historical 30 days volatility of 17.3% is lower, thus better.

'Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The downside volatility over 5 years of SPDR DJ Wilshire Intl Real Estate is 14.1%, which is smaller, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (15.4%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the downside risk is 12.2%, which is smaller, thus better than the value of 13.3% from the benchmark.

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The Sharpe Ratio over 5 years of SPDR DJ Wilshire Intl Real Estate is -0.33, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.4) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) is -0.12, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 0.6 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.55) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside risk / excess return profile of -0.44 of SPDR DJ Wilshire Intl Real Estate is lower, thus worse.
- Looking at downside risk / excess return profile in of -0.17 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.84).

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The Ulcer Index over 5 years of SPDR DJ Wilshire Intl Real Estate is 16 , which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (9.45 ) in the same period.
- Looking at Downside risk index in of 15 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (10 ).

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum reduction from previous high of -43.4 days of SPDR DJ Wilshire Intl Real Estate is lower, thus worse.
- Looking at maximum DrawDown in of -35.9 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (-24.5 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs). Many assume Max DD Duration is the length of time between new highs during which the Max DD (magnitude) occurred. But that isn’t always the case. The Max DD duration is the longest time between peaks, period. So it could be the time when the program also had its biggest peak to valley loss (and usually is, because the program needs a long time to recover from the largest loss), but it doesn’t have to be'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the maximum days under water of 455 days in the last 5 years of SPDR DJ Wilshire Intl Real Estate, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (351 days)
- Looking at maximum time in days below previous high water mark in of 455 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (351 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the average time in days below previous high water mark of 144 days in the last 5 years of SPDR DJ Wilshire Intl Real Estate, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (78 days)
- Compared with SPY (101 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average days below previous high of 157 days is greater, thus worse.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of SPDR DJ Wilshire Intl Real Estate are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.