'Total return, when measuring performance, is the actual rate of return of an investment or a pool of investments over a given evaluation period. Total return includes interest, capital gains, dividends and distributions realized over a given period of time. Total return accounts for two categories of return: income including interest paid by fixed-income investments, distributions or dividends and capital appreciation, representing the change in the market price of an asset.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (88.1%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return, or increase in value of -65.1% of VanEck Vectors Russia ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Looking at total return in of -68.1% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (26.1%).

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The annual return (CAGR) over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Russia ETF is -19%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (13.5%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) is -31.6%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 8.1% from the benchmark.

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (20.9%) in the period of the last 5 years, the volatility of 37.4% of VanEck Vectors Russia ETF is higher, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (17.3%) in the period of the last 3 years, the historical 30 days volatility of 44.7% is greater, thus worse.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (15%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside risk of 31.9% of VanEck Vectors Russia ETF is greater, thus worse.
- Looking at downside deviation in of 38.8% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (12.1%).

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The risk / return profile (Sharpe) over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Russia ETF is -0.57, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.52) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the Sharpe Ratio is -0.76, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 0.32 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of -0.67 in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Russia ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.73)
- Looking at downside risk / excess return profile in of -0.88 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.46).

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the Downside risk index of 14 in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Russia ETF, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (9.33 )
- Compared with SPY (10 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Downside risk index of 15 is larger, thus worse.

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the maximum DrawDown of -82.1 days in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Russia ETF, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days)
- Compared with SPY (-24.5 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley of -82.1 days is smaller, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the maximum days below previous high of 328 days in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Russia ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (488 days)
- Looking at maximum days below previous high in of 245 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to SPY (488 days).

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (123 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the average days below previous high of 87 days of VanEck Vectors Russia ETF is lower, thus better.
- Compared with SPY (179 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average days below previous high of 61 days is lower, thus better.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
[Show Details]

- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of VanEck Vectors Russia ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.