'Total return, when measuring performance, is the actual rate of return of an investment or a pool of investments over a given evaluation period. Total return includes interest, capital gains, dividends and distributions realized over a given period of time. Total return accounts for two categories of return: income including interest paid by fixed-income investments, distributions or dividends and capital appreciation, representing the change in the market price of an asset.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (109.2%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return of -65.1% of VanEck Vectors Russia ETF is smaller, thus worse.
- Looking at total return, or increase in value in of -68.1% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (33.3%).

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (15.9%) in the period of the last 5 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of -19% of VanEck Vectors Russia ETF is lower, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the annual performance (CAGR) is -31.6%, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 10.1% from the benchmark.

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The historical 30 days volatility over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Russia ETF is 37.4%, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (20.9%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the volatility is 44.7%, which is greater, thus worse than the value of 17.6% from the benchmark.

'Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The downside deviation over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Russia ETF is 31.9%, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (14.9%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (12.3%) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside volatility of 38.8% is greater, thus worse.

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The Sharpe Ratio over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Russia ETF is -0.57, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.64) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (0.43) in the period of the last 3 years, the Sharpe Ratio of -0.76 is lower, thus worse.

'The Sortino ratio measures the risk-adjusted return of an investment asset, portfolio, or strategy. It is a modification of the Sharpe ratio but penalizes only those returns falling below a user-specified target or required rate of return, while the Sharpe ratio penalizes both upside and downside volatility equally. Though both ratios measure an investment's risk-adjusted return, they do so in significantly different ways that will frequently lead to differing conclusions as to the true nature of the investment's return-generating efficiency. The Sortino ratio is used as a way to compare the risk-adjusted performance of programs with differing risk and return profiles. In general, risk-adjusted returns seek to normalize the risk across programs and then see which has the higher return unit per risk.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.9) in the period of the last 5 years, the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of -0.67 of VanEck Vectors Russia ETF is smaller, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (0.62) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside risk / excess return profile of -0.88 is lower, thus worse.

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (9.32 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Ulcer Index of 14 of VanEck Vectors Russia ETF is greater, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (10 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Downside risk index of 15 is larger, thus worse.

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum reduction from previous high of -82.1 days of VanEck Vectors Russia ETF is smaller, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (-24.5 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley of -82.1 days is lower, thus worse.

'The Maximum Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. It is the length of time the account was in the Max Drawdown. A Max Drawdown measures a retrenchment from when an equity curve reaches a new high. It’s the maximum an account lost during that retrenchment. This method is applied because a valley can’t be measured until a new high occurs. Once the new high is reached, the percentage change from the old high to the bottom of the largest trough is recorded.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The maximum time in days below previous high water mark over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Russia ETF is 328 days, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (488 days) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum days under water is 245 days, which is smaller, thus better than the value of 488 days from the benchmark.

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The average days under water over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Russia ETF is 87 days, which is smaller, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (123 days) in the same period.
- Looking at average time in days below previous high water mark in of 61 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to SPY (176 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of VanEck Vectors Russia ETF are hypothetical and do not account for slippage, fees or taxes.